Textbook Notes (363,062)
Canada (158,169)
HLSC 2P21 (34)
Chapter 8

HLSC 2P21 Chapter 8: Chapter 8 - Social Dimensions of Mental Health

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Brock University
Health Sciences
Terrance Wade

Chapter 8 – Social Dimensions of Mental Health • Mental illness – psychiatric condition or diagnosis • Mental disorder – mental abnormality in which a person exhibits strange or inappropriate behaviours Mental Illness in Canada Historical Development of Estimating Prevalence • History of psychiatric epidemiology into three periods: o First during the turn of the 20 century to WWII o Second between WWII and the 1980s ▪ Psychometrics – the science of systematic psychology measurement to examine such things such as personality and IQ ▪ After WWII, concern about “shell shock”, now called PTSD o Third marked a shift away from psychiatric clinical interviews to structured diagnostic interviews • Two main goals for new diagnostic interviews related to the accuracy of diagnosis (validity) and the replicability of diagnosis (reliability) o Criterion validity – how it compares when measured against the gold standard • Comorbidity – co-occurrence of more than one disorder • Income adequacy – measure of household income that adjusts for the number of persons living in the household Edmonton Survey of Psychiatric Disorders (3 Generation) • 1 in 5 people in the community had a mental disorder in the last 12 months • A third of people have had a mental disorder at least one point in time in their lifetime • Lifetime prevalence includes new cases, current, and recurring Explaining Mental Illness Social selection vs. social causation • Individuals in lower income, education, and income groups have a higher risk of psychiatric disorder • Social selection – presence of a disorder creating a downward social mobility for the individual o Social drift hypothesis – type of social selection referring to an intergenerational change in which successive generations will be continually downward mobile • Social causation – alternative view that social position is a cause of mental disorder o Based on three factors: ▪ Individuals with lower SES will experience a greater level of social stress, increasing risk disorder ▪ People in different social classes possess different resources to deal with stress ▪ Inter-generational children born to parents of higher SES are less likely to be exposed to pre- and post-natal risks; such as malnourishment and exposure to harmful chemicals that predispose them to future problems • Theories of social causation o Labelling theory o The stress process ▪ Differential exposure vs differential vulnerability Labelling Theory • Being labelled mentally ill or insane has profound effects on both a person’s own self-identity and behaviour and how others perceive and behave toward the person bearing the label • “residual deviances” – the involve rule-breaking behaviour, often involving violation of taken- for-granted rules that govern normal social behaviours • Label of mental illness has an element of performance o Conducted a study where they were to act like they heard voices, and once admitted acted normal, all were discharged with a diagnosis regardless of the symptoms no longer being shown o Shows that once a label is places, people are reluctant to remove it • Myth of mental illness: o Thomas Szas take
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