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Chapter 9

LING 1P93 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Cleft Lip And Cleft Palate, Phonological Awareness, Effusion

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Richard Welland

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LING 1P93 Chapter 9 Notes: Phonological Disorders
Phonological disorder: an impairment of an individuals phonological system that
results in a signicant problem with speech sound production that diers from age
and culturally based expectations
Articulation disorder: emphasizes impact of the disorder on an individuals ability to
articulate certain speech sounds eectively
2 important aspects of phonological development are:
(1) developing a representation for each phoneme in ones language
(2) developing a solid and stable boundary around each phoneme to make it distinct
from other phonemes
Cognates: two phonemes that dier by only one characteristic (Ex. [t] and [d] dier
only by voicing)
Prevalence: number of cases of a condition among the population
Phonological vs. Articulation Disorders
Model of Speech Production: Perceptual Target (Phonological Representation)
Motor Schema  Speech Output (Articulation)
Surface representation: what we produce (articulation)
Underlying representation: phonology
Phonemes as Contrasts
-the [p] in pig is dierent from the [p] in map; these 2 [p]’s are allophones
Allophones: variations of the same phoneme
International Phonetic Alphabet: a phonetic alphabet that describes and
classies each speech sound on the basis of how and where it is produced in the
speech mechanism
Articulatory Phonetics: classication of speech sounds
Vowel: relatively little constriction against the air3ow in the oral cavity
characterized by Height (high, mid, low); Frontness (front, central, back);
Roundness; Tension
(lax or tense)
Consonant: air3ow is constricted in some way- this is their dening feature
characterized by Place of Articulation (Bilabial, velar, etc); Manner of
articulation (stop, nasal,
fricative, etc); Voicing
Coarticulation: sounds overlap one another during articulation
Assimilation: how features of one sound take on the features of neighbouring
sounds (Ex. the ‘a’ in man becomes nasalized)
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