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Chapter 6-7

LING 3P61 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6-7: Bound And Unbound Morphemes, Amay, Intentionality

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Lynn Dempsey

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LING 3P61 Chapter 6: Development of Syntax and Morphology
Productivity/Generativity of Language: characteristic of human language that
speakers and hearers have the capacity to produce and understand an innite
number of novel sentences
Syntax: governs the ordering of words in sentences
Open-class words/lexical categories: content words; N, V, Adj
Closed-class words/functional categories: function words; auxiliaries, prepositions,
complementizers, determiners
Morphology: smallest units of meaning
Bound morpheme: unit that conveys meaning but cannot stand alone (ex. plural
Free morpheme: words that stand alone
Prescriptive rules: grammar that is taught in English classes
Descriptive rules: how we actually talk; the rules that linguistics write
Transitional forms: utterances such as vertical constructions that children produce
between producing single word and clear two word utterances
Relational meaning: the relation between the referents of the words in a word
Ex. in “my teddy” – my refers to the speaker and teddy refers to the stu7ed
Combinatorial speech: speech in which words are combined in utterances as
opposed to single word utterances
Telegraphic speech: speech typical of 2 yr olds that includes content words and
omits grammatical morphemes such as determiners and endings on nouns and
Grammatical morphemes: words and word endings that mark grammatical
relations, such as articles, prepositions, auxiliary verbs, noun and verb endings
Yes/no questions: can be answered with a yes or no
Wh- questions: begin with wh- words: who what when where why and how
Complex sentences: sentences that contain more than one clause (ie. more than
one verb)
Holistic: top-down; memorizing large, unanalyzed chunks of speech
Analytical: bottom-up; involves breaking down the speech stream into its
component parts and guring out the system for productively combining these
component parts
Mean length utterance: a common measure of grammatical development; average
length of the utterances in a sample of spontaneous speech, usually counted in
terms of the number of morphemes
Response strategies: strategies that enable kids to respond to speech they only
partially understand
Constructivist view: when children rst put words together in sentences, they do so
making use of a system that allows only limited productivity
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