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Chapter 6,7

LING 3P94 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6,7: Formal Language, Reflexive Relation, Asymmetric Relation

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Cheng Luo

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LING 3P94 Seminar Reading: (Ch. 6) Components and Contrasts of
-the analysis of word meanings is often seen as a process of breaking down the
sense of a word into its minimal components
Componential denitions: formalized dictionary denitions
Semantic oppositions: the dimensions of meaning themselves
Polysemy: one lexical item has more than one denition
Componential analysis: reducing a words meaning to its ultimate contrastive
Semantic contrastingness = Incompatibility=meaning exclusion
Meaning exclusion: 2 componential formulae or the meanings they express are
incompatible if the one contains at least 1 feature contrasting with a feature in the
Ex. woman is incompatible with child because of the clash between +adult
and –adult ?
Hyponymy (meaning inclusion): the relationship exists between 2 meanings if one
componential formula contains all the features present in the other formula
Ex. woman is hyponymous to grown up because the 2 features making up the
denition grown
up are both present in the denition to woman
-the more specic term is called the hyponym and the more general term is called
the subordinate
1. Synonymy and polysemy are relations between form and meaning:
a) Synonymy: more than 1 form having the same meaning
b) Polysemy: the same form having more than one meaning
2. Hyponymy and incompatibility are relations between 2 meanings:
a) Hyponymy: the inclusion of 1 meaning in another
b) Incompatibility: the exclusion of 1 meaning from another
Signese= formal language
-Unambiguous: every expression has just one meaning
-Arbitrary: any written symbol in signees can be replaced by some other written
symbol so as long as this substitution is consistent and doesn’t lead to ambiguity
Rules of Signese:
1. The order in which components are placed is not signicant
2. If there are 2 occurrences of the same feature in a formula, one of them is
3. The occurrence in the same formula of contrasting features (+male and –male)
violates the notational
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