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Chapter 6

LING 4P10 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Implicit Learning, Descriptive Knowledge, Procedural Knowledge

Course Code
James Corcoran

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Chapter 6: Skill Acquisition Theory
-accounts for how people progress in learning a variety of skills from initial learning
to advanced prociency
-basic claim is that the learning of a wide variety of skills shows a similarity in
development from initial representation to knowledge through initial changes in
behavior and that this set of phenomena can be accounted for by a set of basic
principles common to the acquisition of all skills
-3 stages of development: cognitive, associative and autonomous; or declarative,
procedural and automatic; or presentation, practice, and production
-knowledge is acquired through perceptive observation and analysis of others doing
the skilled behavior or transmitted in verbal form from one who knows to one who
-second stage is acting on this knowledge; turning declarative into procedural
-a large amount of practice is needed to decrease time needed to execute the task,
decrease errors and amount of attention required which leads to automatization
-central concept is the power law: reaction time and error rate decrease
systematically as a consequence of practice
-a quick shift from declarative to procedural knowledge followed by a much slower
process of automatization
-regardless of the nature of the knowledge drawn on in the later stages of
development, this knowledge is much more specic than at the beginning that it
doesn’t transfer well to “similar tasks
Ex. comprehension vs production ; speaking to writing
-combination of abstract rules and concrete examples are necessary to get learners
past the declarative threshold into proceduralization
What counts as evidence?
-Reacction times, error rates, di'erences in performance from one condition to
-computational modeling
-neuroimaging, evoked potentials
-Distributed vs massed practice: the ideal spacing of practice is determined by the
ratio of inter-session interval (amount of time bw di'erent encounters with the same
item) and retention interval (amount of time bw the end of practice and beginning
of testing)
Common misunderstandings
1) Skill acquisition either explains everything about SLA or nothing; it competes with
other theories to be the one and only explanation
2) It is incompatible with a variety of empirical ndings in the eld
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