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Chapter .

LING 4P10 Chapter Notes - Chapter .: White Matter, Ontogeny, Embodied Cognition

Course Code
James Corcoran

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Bi/Mullingual Turn in SLA (Ortega)
Roots of the monolingual bias in sla
-3 criques:
-argument against the comparave fallacy, or the deeply problemac pracce of taking the
idealized competence of nave speakers as the golden benchmark for invesgang linguisc
development in an addional language
-the accusaon that aprevalent target deviaon perspecve thwarts the *elds potenal for
having broad impact on other disciplines that study language ontogeny
-proposal of mulcompetence which addressed the need for a holisc bi/mullingual prism
when invesgang late lang learning, while also loudly and clearly denouncing the de*cit approach
dominant in sla
-the monolingual bias rests on a number of implicitly held beliefs about the nature of lang,
monolingualism, bilingualism and naveness
-nave speaker is used to denote a language uer who had exposure by birth but is also monolingual
-nonnave speaker possesses a derivave and approximave kind of linguisc competence, one that
betrays itself in detectable traces of other languages during language use
-the archetype construct of nave speaker stands for a monolingual nave speaker
-the 2 labels and their meanings undergo a process of synecdoche (where a part stands for the whole)
3 important consequences:
-by making it unnecessary to even express overtly the adjecve monolingual in the nave
speaker level, monolingualism is taken as the implicit norm
-the bilingual or mullingual competence that otherwise is a necessary part of the meaning of
non-nave speaker is forgo.en
-linguisc ownership by birth is elevated to an inalienable right and advtange
-the monolingual bias blinds linguisc cognive SLA communies to the fact that understanding how
bi/mullingualism comes about later in life must be the goal of the inquiry in SLA
-one of the ways forward is to commit to a theory that can be found to be a good *t for linguisc-
cognive SLA- bc it is congruent epistemologically with the goals of understanding the linguisc,
cognive and psycholinguisc dimensions of addional-language learning – yet places demands on
knowledge feneraon that are helpful in the task of breaking the siege of the monolingual bias-UBL
posits human sociality and need for communicaon on the one hand and the experience of language use
in context on the other as joint forces responsible for the emergence of language
Usage based linguiscs (UBL)
-encompasses many theories; developed to explain grammar and language change and to invesgate
language ontogeny as instanated in monolingual L1 acquision
-main tenet that language is driven by experience
Important tenets:
-grammar is an emergent property of human communicaon, each users experience shapes lang over
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