1 Ultimate Questions
Thinking About Philosophy
Nils Ch. Rauhut
2 Chapter Six:
The Mind/Body Problem
3 The Problem
1 • The Body
–described through physical properties
–Observable and therefore public
2 • The Mind
–described through mental states
–based on first-person perspective, not observable, and therefore private
4 Possible Solutions
• Physicalism: the physical states of the body are more fundamental than the mental
states of the mind.
• Dualism: the mind and body are two different and equally real substances.
• Idealism: the mental states of the mind are more fundamental than the physical
states of the body.
5 Substance Dualism:
•The body is a physical substance, located in time and space and subject to the laws
•The mind is a nonextended thinking substance, which is not subject to the laws of
6 Arguments for Substance Dualism
• Near-death experiences
• The Conceivability Argument
7 Arguments Against Substance Dualism
• The Problem of Interaction
• A Category Mistake
8 Varieties of Physicalism
• Behaviorism: mental states are dispositions to behave.
• Identity Theory: mental states are brain states.
• Functionalism: mental states are functional states that causally relate inner states
with behavioral effects.
• Eliminative Materialism: mental states do not exist.
9 Behaviorism: 1 • A Category Mistake