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Ultimate Questions 6

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David Hayes

19/04/2012 1 Ultimate Questions Thinking About Philosophy rd 3 Edition Nils Ch. Rauhut 2 Chapter Six: The Mind/Body Problem 3 The Problem 1 • The Body –described through physical properties –Observable and therefore public 2 • The Mind –described through mental states –based on first-person perspective, not observable, and therefore private – 4 Possible Solutions • Physicalism: the physical states of the body are more fundamental than the mental states of the mind. • Dualism: the mind and body are two different and equally real substances. • Idealism: the mental states of the mind are more fundamental than the physical states of the body.  5 Substance Dualism: •The body is a physical substance, located in time and space and subject to the laws of physics. •The mind is a nonextended thinking substance, which is not subject to the laws of physics. 6 Arguments for Substance Dualism • Near-death experiences • • The Conceivability Argument –Leibniz’s Law • Intentionality 7 Arguments Against Substance Dualism • The Problem of Interaction –parallelism –occasionalism • A Category Mistake 8 Varieties of Physicalism • Behaviorism: mental states are dispositions to behave. • Identity Theory: mental states are brain states. • Functionalism: mental states are functional states that causally relate inner states with behavioral effects. • Eliminative Materialism: mental states do not exist. 9 Behaviorism: 1 • A Category Mistake
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