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Chapter 1

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Brock University
John Mitterer

PSYC 1F25 Notes Chapter #1 Overt behaviours: directly observable actions and responses ex. sleeping, talking, eating, etc. Covert behaviours: private mental events ex. thinking, dreaming, remembering, memory, language, perception, problem solving creativity, etc. Empirical evidence: information gained from direct observation Scientific information is: o Systematic: carefully planned o Intersubjective: confirmed by more than one observer The goals of psychology are to: o Describe: naming and classifying; making a detailed record of observations . What is the nature of this behaviour? o Understand: stating the causes of a behaviour . Why does it occur? o Predict: ability to accurately forecast behaviour . Can we forecast when it will occur? o Control: ability to alter the conditions that affect behaviour . What conditions affect it? The Scientific Method: 1. Making observations 4. Gathering evidence/testing the hypothesis 2. Defining a problem 5. Theory building 3. Proposing a hypothesis 6. Publishing results - Structuralism Functionalism Behaviourism - Areas of ethical concern in behavioural research: o Deception o Invasion of privacy o Lasting harm - Wilhem Wundt is the “father of psychology” - Stimuli: events in the environment - Conditioned response: a learned reaction to a particular stimulus - Self-image: your perception of your own body, personality, and capabilities - Self-evaluation: appraising yourself as good or bad - Frame of reference: a mental perspective used to interpret events: o Western o Educated o Industrialized o Rich o Democratic - Views that shape modern psychology: 1. Biological perspective: attempt to explain behaviour in term of biological principles such as brain processes, evolution, and genetics 2. Psychological perspective: view that behaviour is shaped by psychological processes occurring at the level of the individual; behavioural view (behaviour is shaped by one’s environment); cognitive view (how mental processes affect our thoughts, actions and feelings); psychodynamic view (behaviour is directed by unconscious, hidden forces); humanistic view (behaviour is guided by one’s self-image and needs for personal growth) 3. Socioculture perspective: view that believes behaviour is influenced by one’s social and cultural context Eclectic: drawing ideas or insights from a variety of perspectives Developmental psychology: child psychology Learning: conditioning, memory Personality: individual differences, motivation Sensation and perception: processing sensory information Biopsychology: brain and nervous system Social psychology: attitudes, groups, leadership Comparative psychology: animal behaviour Psychology: scientific study of accurate if it is stated in very thinking, anticipation) to explain behaviour and mental processes general terms behaviour ex. expecting free videos at a site Scientific observation: gathering Hypothesis: statement of empirical information (information predicted outcome of an *Gestalt psychology: the study of gained from direct observation) to experiment or an educated guess thinking, learning, and perception answer questions about the world about the relationship between into whole units, not by parts Research method: a systematic variables Unconscious: the area of the mind approach to answering scientific Operational definition: actions or that lies outside of personal questions procedures used to measure a awareness concept ex. hunger = “the number Description: the process of of hours of food deprivation” Repression: memories, thoughts, naming and classifying or impulses are unconsciously held Theory: system of ideas designed out of awareness b/c they are Understanding: the causes of a to interrelate concepts and facts in threatening behaviour can be stated a way that summarizes data *Psychoanalysis: the first fully Prediction: ability to accurately forecast behaviour Stimulus: any physical energy developed psychotherapy by senses by an organism Freud; explores unconscious conflicts Control: altering conditions that *Introspection: “looking inward”; influence behaviour ex. helping to examine one’s own thoughts, Neo-Freudian: one who accepts someone with fear of spiders, feelings, or sensations Freud’s theories, but revises parts changing classroom or cars of it *Structuralism: analyzing Critical thinking (in psychology): sensations and personal *Psychodynamic theory: theory of reflection involving the support of experience into basic elements or behaviour that emphasizes beliefs through scientific explanation and observation building blocks ex. apple hue, internal conflicts, motives, and roundness, weight unconscious forces *Pseudopsychology: any unfound *Functionalism: how behaviour *Humanism: focuses on human system that resembles psychology and mental abilities help people experience, problems, potentials, ex. skull shape, graphology adapt to their environments and ideals Superstition: unfound beliefs held Natural selection: Darwin’s theory *Determinism: the idea that without evidence that evolution favours those plants behaviour is determined by forces and animals best suited to their beyond our control *Uncritical acceptance: the tendency to believe claims b/c living conditions they seem true or b/c it would be Free will: our ability to make Behaviourism: the study of voluntary choices nice if they were true observable behaviour *Self-actualization: developing *Confirmation bias: tendency to Response: any muscular action, one’s potential fully and becoming remember or notice information glandular activity, or other the best possible person th
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