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Textbook definitions.docx

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Psychology
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PSYC 1F90
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John Mitterer

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Ablation Surgical removal of tissue. Absolute threshold The minimum amount of physical energy necessary to produce a sensation. Accessibility (in memory) Memories currently stored in memory which can be retrieved when necessary are both available and accessible. Accommodation In Piaget’s theory, the modification of existing mental patterns to fit new demands (that is, mental schemes are changed to accommodate new information or experiences). Accommodation Changes in the shape of the lens of the eye. Acculturative stress Stress caused by the many changes and adaptations required when a person moves to a foreign culture. Acquaintance (date) rapes Forced intercourse that occurs in the context of a date or other voluntary encounter. Acquisition The period in conditioning during which a response is reinforced. Action component How one tends to act toward the object of an attitude. Action potential The nerve impulse. Activation-synthesis hypothesis An attempt to explain how dream content is affected by motor commands in the brain that occur during sleep but are not carried out. Active listener A person who knows how to maintain attention, avoid distractions, and actively gather information from lectures. Actor-observer bias The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal causes while attributing one’s own behavior to external causes (situations and circumstances). Acute stress disorder A psychological disturbance lasting up to 1 month following stresses that would produce anxiety in anyone who experienced them. Adaptive behaviors Actions that aid attempts to survive and adapt to changing conditions. Adjustment disorders An emotional disturbance caused by ongoing stressors within the range of common experience. Adolescence The culturally defined period between childhood and adulthood. Adrenal glands Endocrine glands that arouse the body, regulate salt balance, adjust the body to stress, and affect sexual functioning. Adrenaline A hormone produced by the adrenal glands that tends to arouse the body. Affection needs Emotional needs for love and affection. Ageism Discrimination or prejudice based on a person’s age. An institutionalized tendency to discriminate on the basis of age; prejudice based on age. Aggression Any response made with the intent of causing harm. Hurting another person or achieving one’s goals at the expense of another person. Any action carried out with the intention of harming another person. Aggression cues Stimuli or signals that are associated with aggression and that tend to elicit it. Aggressive pornography Media depictions of sexual violence or of forced participation in sexual activity. Agoraphobia The fear that something extremely embarrassing will happen if one leaves the house or enters unfamiliar situations. Alarm reaction, First stage of the GAS, during which bodily resources are mobilized to cope with a stressor. Alcohol myopia Shortsighted thinking and perception that occurs during alcohol intoxication. Alexi-thymia A learned difficulty expressing emotions; more common in men. Algorithm A learned set of rules that always leads to the correct solution of a problem. All-or-nothing thinking Classifying objects or events as absolutely right or wrong, good or bad, acceptable or unacceptable, and so forth. Alpha waves. Large, slow brainwaves associated with relaxation and falling asleep. Altered state of consciousness (ASC) A condition of awareness distinctly different in quality or pattern from waking consciousness. Alzheimer's An age-related disease characterized by memory loss, mental confusion, and, in its later stages, a nearly total loss of mental abilities. Ambivalence Mixed positive and negative feelings or simultaneous attraction and repulsion. Ambivalent attachment An emotional bond marked by conflicting feelings of affection, anger, and emotional turmoil. Amygdala A part of the limbic system (within the brain) that produces fear responses. A part of the limbic system associated with fear responses. Androgens Any of a number of male sex hormones, especially testosterone. Any of a number of male sex hormones, especially testosterone. Androgyny The presence of both “masculine” and “feminine” traits in a single person (as masculinity and femininity are defined within one’s culture). Anger control Personal strategies for reducing or curbing anger. Anhedonia An inability to feel pleasure. Anima An archetype representing the female principle. Animal models In research, an animal whose behavior is used to derive principles that may apply to human behavior. Animus An archetype representing the male principle. Anorexia nervosa Active self-starvation or a sustained loss of appetite that has psychological origins. Antecedents Events that precede a response. Anterograde amnesia Loss of the ability to form or retrieve memories for events that occur after an injury or trauma. Anthropomorphic The error of attributing human thoughts, feelings, or motives to animals, especially as a way of explaining their behavior. Antidepressants Mood-elevating drugs. Antipsychotics (major tranquilizers) Drugs that, in addition to having tranquilizing effects, also tend to reduce hallucinations and delusional thinking. Antisocial behavior Any behavior that has a negative impact on other people. Antisocial personality (antisocial/psychopathic personality) A person who lacks a conscience; is emotionally shallow, impulsive, selfish; and tends to manipulate others. Anxiety disorders Disruptive feelings of fear, apprehension, or anxiety, or distortions in behavior that are anxiety related. Anxiety reduction hypothesis, Explains the self-defeating nature of avoidance responses as a result of the reinforcing effects of relief from anxiety. Anxiety. Apprehension, dread, or uneasiness similar to fear but based on an unclear threat. Anxiolytics Drugs (such as Valium) that produce relaxation or reduce anxiety. Aphasia A speech disturbance resulting from brain damage. Apparent-distance hypothesis An explanation of the moon illusion stating that the horizon seems more distant than the night sky. Applied psychology The use of psychological principles and research methods to solve practical problems. Approach-approach conflict Choosing between two positive, or desirable, alternatives. Approach-avoidance conflict Being attracted to and repelled by the same goal or activity. Aptitude tests A test that rates a person's potential to learn skills required by various occupations. Archetypes A universal idea, image, or pattern, found in the collective unconscious. Architectural psychology, Study of the effects buildings have on behavior and the design of buildings using behavioral principles. Area The very front of the frontal lobes; involved in sense of self, reasoning, and planning. Arousal theory, Assumes that people prefer to maintain ideal, or comfortable, levels of arousal. Artificial intelligence (AI) Refers to both the creation of computer programs capable of doing things that require intelligence when done by people, and to the resulting programs themselves. Asexuality A person not romantically or erotically attracted to either men or women. Assertiveness training Instruction in how to be self-assertive. Assessment centers A program set up within an organization to conduct in-depth evaluations of job candidates. Assimilation In Piaget’s theory, the application of existing mental patterns to new situations (that is, the new situation is assimilated to existing mental schemes). Association areas All areas of the cerebral cortex that are not primarily sensory or motor in function. Associative learning The formation of simple associations between various stimuli and responses. Astigmatism Defects in the cornea, lens, or eye that cause some areas of vision to be out of focus. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) A behavioral problem characterized by short attention span, restless movement, and impaired learning capacity. Attentional overload. A stressful condition caused when sensory stimulation, information, and social contacts make excessive demands on attention. Attitude A learned tendency to respond to people, objects, or institutions in a positive or negative way. Attitude scale A collection of attitudinal statements with which respondents indicate agreement or disagreement. Attribution, The mental process of assigning causes to events. In emotion, the process of attributing arousal to a particular source. The process of making inferences about the causes of one’s own behavior, and that of others. Authenticity In Carl Rogers's terms, the ability of a therapist to be genuine and honest about his or her own feelings. Authoritarian parents Parents who enforce rigid rules and demand strict obedience to authority. Authoritarian personality A personality pattern characterized by rigidity, inhibition, prejudice, and an excessive concern with power, authority, and obedience. Authoritative parents Parents who supply firm and consistent guidance combined with love and affection. Autokinetic effect. The apparent movement of a stationary pinpoint of light displayed in a darkened room. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) The system of nerves carrying information to and from the internal organs and glands. The system of nerves that connects the brain with the internal organs and glands. Autonomy A conflict created when growing self-control (autonomy) is pitted against feelings of shame or doubt. Availability (in memory) Memories currently stored in memory are available. Aversion therapy Suppressing an undesirable response by associating it with aversive (painful or uncomfortable) stimuli. Aversive A stimulus that is painful or uncomfortable. Avoidance learning Learning to make a response in order to postpone or prevent discomfort. Avoidance-avoidance conflict. Choosing between two negative, or undesirable, alternatives. Avoidant attachment An emotional bond marked by a tendency to resist commitment to others. Axon Fiber that carries information away from the cell body of a neuron. Axon terminals. Bulb-shaped structures at the ends of axons that form synapses with the dendrites and somas of other neurons. End of terms. Return to top. Bait shyness An unwillingness or hesitation on the part of animals to eat a particular food. Barnum effect, The tendency to consider a personal description accurate if it is stated in very general terms. Base rate The basic rate at which an event occurs over time; the basic probability of an event. Basic anxiety A primary form of anxiety that arises from living in a hostile world. Basic needs The first four levels of needs in Maslow’s hierarchy; lower needs tend to be more potent than higher needs. Basic suggestion effect The tendency of hypnotized persons to carry out suggested actions as if they were involuntary. Behavior modification The application of learning principles to change human behavior, especially maladaptive behavior. Behavior therapy Any therapy designed to actively change behavior. Behavioral assessment Recording the frequency of various behaviors. Behavioral contract A formal agreement stating behaviors to be changed and consequences that apply. Behavioral dieting Weight reduction based on changing exercise and eating habits, rather than temporary self-starvation. Behavioral genetics The study of inherited behavioral traits and tendencies. Behavioral medicine The study of behavioral factors in medicine, physical illness, and medical treatment. Behavioral personality theories Any model of personality that emphasizes learning and observable behavior. Behavioral risk factors Behaviors that increase the chances of disease, injury, or premature death. Behavioral settings A smaller area within an environment whose use is well defined, such as a bus depot, waiting room, or lounge. Behaviorism The school of psychology that emphasizes the study of overt, observable behavior. Belief component What a person thinks or believes about the object of an attitude. Beta waves Small, fast brainwaves associated with being awake and alert. Biased sample A subpart of a larger population that does not accurately reflect characteristics of the whole population. Bilingualism An ability to speak two languages. Binge drinking Consuming five or more drinks in a short time (four for women). Binocular depth cues Perceptual features that impart information about distance and three-dimensional space which require two eyes. Biodata Detailed biographical information about a job applicant. Biofeedback. Information given to a person about his or her ongoing bodily activities; aids voluntary regulation of bodily states. Biological biasing effect Hypothesized effect that prenatal exposure to sex hormones has on development of the body, nervous system, and later behavior patterns. Biological motives Innate motives based on biological needs. Biological perspective The attempt to explain behavior in terms of underlying biological principles. Biological predisposition The presumed hereditary readiness of humans to learn certain skills, such as how to use language, or a readiness to behave in particular ways. Biological preparedness Organisms are more easily able to learn some associations (e.g., food and illness) than others (e.g., flashing light and illness). Evolution then places biological limits on what an animal or person can easily learn. Biological rhythm Any repeating cycle of biological activity, such as sleep and waking cycles or changes in body temperature. Bipolar disorders Emotional disorders involving both depression and mania or hypomania. Bipolar I disorder A mood disorder in which a person has episodes of mania (excited, hyperactive, energetic, grandiose behavior) and also periods of deep depression. Bipolar II disorder A mood disorder in which a person is mostly depressed (sad, despondent, guilt ridden) but has also had one or more episodes of mild mania (hypomania). Bisexuals A person romantically and erotically attracted to both men and women. Bottom-up processing Organizing perceptions by beginning with low-level features. Brainstem The lowest portions of the brain, including the cerebellum, medulla, pons, and reticular formation. Brainstorming Method of creative thinking that separates the production and evaluation of ideas. Brainwashing, Engineered or forced attitude change involving a captive audience. Brief psychodynamic therapy A modern therapy based on psychoanalytic theory but designed to produce insights more quickly. Brightness constancy The apparent (or relative) brightness of objects remains the same as long as they are illuminated by the same amount of light. Broca's A language area related to grammar and pronunciation. Broken record A self-assertion technique involving repeating a request until it is acknowledged. Bulimia nervosa Excessive eating (gorging) usually followed by self-induced vomiting and/or taking laxatives. Bullying The deliberate and repeated use of verbal or physical, direct or indirect, aggression as a tactic for dealing with everyday situations. Burnout A work-related condition of mental, physical, and emotional exhaustion. Bystander apathy Unwillingness of bystanders to offer help during emergencies or to become involved in others' problems. Caffeinism Excessive consumption of caffeine, leading to dependence and a variety of physical and psychological complaints. Cannon-Bard theory, States that activity in the thalamus causes emotional feelings and bodily arousal to occur simultaneously. carbon footprint, The volume of greenhouse gases individual consumption adds to the atmosphere Cardinal traits A personality trait so basic that all of a person’s activities relate to it. case study An in-depth focus on all aspects of a single person. castration Surgical removal of the testicles or ovaries. cataplexy A sudden temporary paralysis of the muscles. Catatonic schizophrenia Schizophrenia marked by stupor, rigidity, unresponsiveness, posturing, mutism, and, sometimes, agitated, purposeless behavior. causation The act of causing some effect. central nervous system (CNS) The brain and spinal cord. Central tendency The tendency for a majority of scores to fall in the midrange of possible values. Central traits The core traits that characterize an individual personality. cerebellum A brain structure that controls posture, muscle tone, and coordination. cerebral The outer layer of the brain. character, Personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated; a person’s desirable or undesirable qualities. chromosomes Thread-like “colored bodies” in the nucleus of each cell that are made up of DNA. Chronological age A person’s age in years. circadian rhythms Cyclical changes in body functions and arousal levels that vary on a schedule approximating a 24-hour day. classical conditioning A form of learning in which reflex responses are associated with new stimuli. Client-centered therapy A nondirective therapy based on insights gained from conscious thoughts and feelings; emphasizes accepting one's true self. clinical case studies. A detailed investigation of a single person, especially one suffering from some injury or disease. clinical method Studying psychological problems and therapies in clinical settings. Clinical psychologists A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of psychological and behavioral disturbances or who does research on such disturbances. coefficient of correlation A statistical index ranging from _1.00 to _1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation. coefficient of correlation. A statistical index ranging from -1.00 to +1.00 that indicates the direction and degree of correlation. coerced Being forced to change your beliefs or your behavior against your will. Coercive power Social power based on the ability to punish others. Cognition The process of thinking or mentally processing information (images, concepts, words, rules, and symbols). cognitive behaviorism, An approach that combines behavioral principles with cognition (perception, thinking, anticipation) to explain behavior. cognitive dissonance An uncomfortable clash between self-image thoughts, beliefs, attitudes, or perceptions and one’s behavior. cognitive interview Use of various cues and strategies to improve the memory of eyewitnesses. cognitive learning Higher-level learning involving thinking, knowing, understanding, and anticipation. cognitive map Internal images or other mental representations of an area (maze, city, campus, and so forth) that underlie an ability to choose alternative paths to the same goal. cognitive therapy A therapy directed at changing the maladaptive thoughts, beliefs, and feelings that underlie emotional and behavioral problems. collective unconscious, A mental storehouse for unconscious ideas and images shared by all humans. color blind A total inability to perceive colors. color weakness An inability to distinguish some colors. Commitment The determination to stay in a long-term relationship with another person. Common traits Personality traits that are shared by most members of a particular culture. Community health campaign. A community-wide education program that provides information about how to lessen risk factors and promote health. Community mental health center A facility offering a wide range of mental health services, such as prevention, counseling, consultation, and crisis intervention. companionate love Form of love characterized by intimacy and commitment but not passion. comparison level A personal standard used to evaluate rewards and costs in a social exchange. compensate Any attempt to overcome feelings of inadequacy or inferiority. compensation Counteracting a real or imagined weakness by emphasizing desirable traits or seeking to excel in the area of weakness or in other areas. compliance Bending to the requests of a person who has little or no authority or other form of social power. compressed workweek, A work schedule that allows an employee to work fewer days per week by putting in more hours per day. Computed tomographic (CT) scanning A computer-enhanced X-ray image of the brain or body. concentrative meditation Mental exercise based on attending to a single object or thought. concept A generalized idea representing a class of related objects or events. Concept formation The process of classifying information into meaningful categories. Concepts A generalized idea representing a category of related objects or events. conceptual rule A formal rule for deciding if an object or event is an example of a particular concept. condensation Combining several people, objects, or events into a single dream image. conditioned A learned response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. conditioned emotional response (CER) An emotional response that has been linked to a previously nonemotional stimulus by classical conditioning. conditioned stimulus (CS) A stimulus that evokes a response because it has been repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus. conditions of worth. Internal standards used to judge the value of one’s thoughts, actions, feelings, or experiences. Conductive hearing loss Poor transfer of sounds from the eardrum to the inner ear. cones Visual receptors for colors and daylight visual acuity. confirmation bias, The tendency to remember or notice information that fits one's expectations but to forget discrepancies. Conflict A stressful condition that occurs when a person must choose between incompatible or contradictory alternatives. conformity Bringing one’s behavior into agreement or harmony with norms or with the behavior of others in a group. congenital problems Problems or defects that originate during prenatal development in the womb. conjunctive concepts A class of objects that have two or more features in common. (For example, to qualify as an example of the concept an object must be both red and triangular.) connotative meaning The subjective, personal, or emotional meaning of a word or concept. Consciousness Mental awareness of sensations and perceptions of external events as well as self- awareness of internal events including thoughts, memories, and feelings about experiences and the self. consequence A stimulus that is painful or uncomfortable. consequences Effects that follow a response. conservation I n Piaget’s theory, mastery of the concept that the weight mass, and volume of matter remains unchanged (is conserved) even when the shape or appearance of objects changes. consistency With respect to child discipline, the maintenance of stable rules of conduct. consolidation Process by which relatively permanent memories are formed in the brain. consummate love Form of love characterized by intimacy, passion, and commitment. contact comfort A pleasant and reassuring feeling human and animal infants get from touching or clinging to something soft and warm, usually their mother. Continuous reinforcement A schedule in which every correct response is followed by a reinforcer. control Altering conditions that influence behavior. control group In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to all experimental conditions or variables conventional level Moral thinking based on a desire to please others or to follow accepted rules and values. convergent thinking Thinking directed toward discovery of a single established correct answer; conventional thinking. conversion disorder, A bodily symptom that mimics a physical disability but is actually caused by anxiety or emotional distress. conviction Beliefs that are important to a person and that evoke strong emotion. Coping statements Reassuring, self-enhancing statements that are used to stop self-critical thinking. correlated, The existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables. correlating The existence of a consistent, systematic relationship between two events, measures, or variables. correlational method Making measurements to discover relationships between events. correlational study. A nonexperimental study designed to measure the degree of relationship (if any) between two or more events, measures, or variables. corticalization An increase in the relative size of the cerebral cortex. counseling psychologists A psychologist who specializes in the treatment of milder emotional and behavioral disturbances. counselor A mental health professional who specializes in helping people with problems not involving serious mental disorder; for example, marriage counselors, career counselors, or school counselors. Covert Reinforcement Using positive imagery to reinforce desired behavior. Covert sensitization Use of aversive imagery to reduce the occurrence of an undesired response. cranial nerves Major nerves that leave the brain without passing through the spinal cord. creative self. The “artist” in each of us that creates a unique identity and style of life. Cretinism Stunted growth and intellectual disability caused by an insufficient supply of thyroid hormone. crisis intervention Skilled management of a psychological emergency. Critical incidents Situations that arise in a job, with which a competent worker must be able to cope. critical situations Situations during childhood that are capable of leaving a lasting imprint on personality. Critical thinking A type of reflection involving the support of beliefs through scientific explanation and observation. Critical thinking An ability to evaluate, compare, analyze, critique, and synthesize information. cross-stimulation effect In group problem solving, the tendency of one person’s ideas to trigger ideas from others. Crowding A subjective feeling of being overstimulated by a loss of privacy or by the nearness of others (especially when social contact with them is unavoidable). Crystallized intelligence The ability to solve problems using already acquired knowledge. Cues External stimuli that guide responses, especially by signaling the presence or absence of reinforcement. cult, A group that professes great devotion to some person and follows that person almost without question; cult members are typically victimized by their leaders in various ways. Cultural relativity— The idea that behavior must be judged relative to the values of the culture in which it occurs. culturally skilled therapist A therapist who has the awareness, knowledge, and skills necessary to treat clients from diverse cultural backgrounds. culture, An ongoing pattern of life, characterizing a society at a given point in history. Culture-fair test A test designed to minimize the importance of skills and knowledge that may be more common in some cultures than in others. curve of forgetting A graph that shows the amount of memorized information remembered after varying lengths of time. cyclothymic disorder Moderate manic and depressive behavior that persists for 2 years or more. Dark adaptation Increased retinal sensitivity to light. daydreams A vivid waking fantasy. death-qualified jury A jury composed of people who favor the death penalty or at least are indifferent to it. Declarative memory That part of long-term memory containing specific factual information. deductive Thought that applies a general set of rules to specific situations; for example, using the laws of gravity to predict the behavior of a single falling object. deep lesioning Removal of tissue within the brain by use of an electrode. Deep sleep Stage 4 slow-wave sleep; the deepest form of normal sleep. Defense mechanism A habitual and often unconscious psychological process used to reduce anxiety. deinstitutionalization Reduced use of full-time commitment to mental institutions to treat mental disorders. Delta waves Large, slow brainwaves that occur in deeper sleep (Stages 3 and 4). delusional disorders A psychosis marked by severe delusions of grandeur, jealousy, persecution, or similar preoccupations. delusions A false belief held against all contrary evidence. dementia A serious mental impairment in old age caused by deterioration of the brain. demonology In medieval Europe, the study of demons and the treatment of persons “possessed” by demons. dendrites Neuron fibers that receive incoming messages. denial Protecting oneself from an unpleasant reality by refusing to perceive it. denotative meaning The exact, dictionary definition of a word or concept; its objective meaning. density The number of people in a given space or, inversely, the amount of space available to each person. Dependent variables In an experiment, the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by the independent variable. depressant (downer) A substance that decreases activity in the body and nervous system. Depression. A state of despondency marked by feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness. depressive disorders, Emotional disorders primarily involving sadness, despondency, and depression. Deprivation In development, the loss or withholding of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, love, and so forth; a condition of lacking. Depth cues Features of the environment and messages from the body that supply information about distance and space. Depth perception The ability to see three-dimensional space and to accurately judge distances. Description, In scientific research, the process of naming and classifying. Descriptive statistics Mathematical tools used to describe and summarize numeric data. desensitization A reduction in emotional sensitivity to a stimulus. desensitization Reducing fear or anxiety by repeatedly exposing a person to emotional stimuli while the person is deeply relaxed. determinism The idea that all behavior has prior causes that would completely explain one's choices and actions if all such causes were known. Detoxification In the treatment of alcoholism, the withdrawal of the patient from alcohol. developmental level An individual’s current state of physical, emotional, and intellectual development. Developmental psychology The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities from conception to death. developmental tasks Any skill that must be mastered, or personal change that must take place, for optimal development. Deviation IQ An IQ obtained statistically from a person’s relative standing in his or her age group; that is, how far above or below average the person’s score was relative to other scores. difference thresholds. The minimum difference between two stimuli that is detectable to an observer. diffusion of responsibility Spreading the responsibility to act among several people; reduces the likelihood that help will be given to a person in need. direct instruction, Presentation of factual information by lecture, demonstration, and rote practice. direct observation Assessing behavior through direct surveillance. discovery learning Learning based on insight and understanding. discovery learning, Instruction based on encouraging students to discover or construct knowledge for themselves. discrimination Treating members of various social groups differently in circumstances where their rights or treatment should be identical. discriminative stimuli Stimuli that precede rewarded and nonrewarded responses in operant conditioning. Disease-prone personality A personality type associated with poor health; marked by persistent negative emotions, including anxiety, depression, and hostility. dishabituation A reversal of habituation. Disinhibition The removal of inhibition; results in acting out behavior that normally would be restrained. Disjunctive concepts A concept defined by the presence of at least one of several possible features. (For example, to qualify an object must be either blue or circular.) disorganized schizophrenia, Schizophrenia marked by incoherence, grossly disorganized behavior, bizarre thinking, and flat or grossly inappropriate emotions. Displaced aggression Redirecting aggression to a target other than the actual source of one’s frustration. displaced aggression Redirecting aggression to a target other than the actual source of one's frustration. Displacement Directing emotions or actions toward safe or unimportant dream images. Dissociative amnesia Loss of memory (partial or complete) for important information related to personal identity. dissociative disorder Temporary amnesia, multiple personality, or depersonalization. Dissociative fugue Sudden travel away from home, plus confusion about one's personal identity. dissociative identity disorder The presence of two or more distinct personalities (multiple personality). disuse Theory that memory traces weaken when memories are not periodically used or retrieved. Divergent thinking Thinking that produces many ideas or alternatives; a major element in original or creative thought. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid A molecular structure that contains coded genetic information. Dogmatism An unwarranted positiveness or certainty in matters of belief or opinion. dominant A gene whose influence will be expressed each time the gene is present. dominant hemisphere A term usually applied to the side of a person's brain that produces language. door-in-the-face effect The tendency for a person who has refused a major request to subsequently be more likely to comply with a minor request. Double approach-avoidance conflict Being simultaneously attracted to and repelled by each of two alternatives. double standard Applying different standards for judging the appropriateness of male and female sexual behavior. double-blind experiment, An arrangement in which both participants and experimenters are unaware of whether participants are in the experimental group or the control group, including who might have been administered a drug or a placebo. Down Syndrome A genetic disorder caused by the presence of an extra chromosome; results in intellectual disability. downward comparison Comparing yourself with a person who ranks lower than you on some dimension. dream processes Mental filters that hide the true meanings of dreams. dream symbols Images in dreams that serve as visible signs of hidden ideas, desires, impulses, emotions, relationships, and so forth. drive Any stimulus (especially an internal stimulus such as hunger) strong enough to goad a person to action. drive The psychological expression of internal needs or valued goals. For example, hunger, thirst, or a drive for success. drug interaction A combined effect of two drugs that exceeds the addition of one drug's effects to the other. drug tolerance A reduction in the body's response to a drug. Dual process hypothesis of sleep Proposes that NREM sleep reduces the overall level of brain activation, allowing unimportant memories to be forgotten while REM sleep sharpens memory for important events from the previous day. Duchenne smiles An authentic smile (as opposed to a posed, false smile) involving the mouth and the small muscles around the eyes. dyspareunia Genital pain before, during, or after sexual intercourse. dysthymic disorder Moderate depression that persists for 2 years or more. Déjà vu The feeling that you have already experienced a situation that you are actually experiencing for the first time. Early childhood education program Programs that provide stimulating intellectual experiences, typically for disadvantaged preschoolers. echoic memory A brief continuation of sensory activity in the auditory system after a sound is heard. ecological footprint, The amount of land and water area required to replenish the resources that a human population consumes. educational psychology The field that seeks to understand how people learn and how teachers instruct. effect Changes in behavior due to participants' expectations that a drug (or other treatment) will have some effect. eflective SQ4R method An active study-reading technique based on these steps: survey, question, read, recite, reflect, and review. egocentric Thought that is self-centered and fails to consider the viewpoints of others. Eidetic imagery The ability to retain a “projected” mental image long enough to use it as a source of information. ejaculation The release of sperm and seminal fluid by the male at the time of orgasm. Elaborative processing Making memories more meaningful through processing that encodes links between new information and existing memories and knowledge, either at the time of the original encoding or on subsequent retrievals. electrical stimulation of the brain (ESB) Direct electrical stimulation and activation of brain tissue. electroconvulsive shock (ECS) An electric current passed directly through the brain, producing a convulsion. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) A treatment for severe depression, consisting of an electric shock passed directly through the brain, which induces a convulsion. electrode. Any device (such as a wire, needle, or metal plate) used to electrically stimulate or destroy nerve tissue or to record its activity. electroencephalograph (EEG). A device that detects, amplifies, and records electrical activity in the brain. electroencephalograph, or EEG. A device designed to detect, amplify, and record electrical activity in the brain. Emblems Gestures that have widely understood meanings within a particular culture. emerging adulthood A socially tolerated period of extended adolescence now quite common in Western societies. Emotion A state characterized by physiological arousal, changes in facial expression, gestures, posture, and subjective feelings. Emotion-focused coping, Managing or controlling one’s emotional reaction to a stressful or threatening situation. emotional appraisal, Evaluating the personal meaning of a stimulus or situation. emotional attachment An especially close emotional bond that infants form with their parents, caregivers, or others. emotional component One’s feelings toward the object of an attitude. Emotional expressions, Outward signs that an emotion is occurring. Emotional feelings The private, subjective experience of having an emotion. emotional intelligence, The ability to perceive, use, understand, and manage emotions. empathic arousal Emotional arousal that occurs when you feel some of another person's pain, fear, or anguish. empathy A capacity for taking another's point of view; the ability to feel what another is feeling. empathy-helping relationship Observation that we are most likely to help someone else when we feel emotions such as empathy and compassion. encoding Converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory. encoding failure Failure to store sufficient information to form a useful memory. Encounter group A group experience that emphasizes intensely honest interchanges among participants regarding feelings and reactions to one another. endocrine system Glands whose secretions pass directly into the bloodstream or lymph system. endogenous Depression that appears to be produced from within (perhaps by chemical imbalances in the brain), rather than as a reaction to life events. Enrichment In development, deliberately making an environment more timulating, nutritional, comforting, loving, and so forth. Environment (“nurture”) The sum of all external conditions affecting development, including especially the effects of learning. environmental assessments Measurement and analysis of the effects an environment has on the behavior and perceptions of people within that environment. Environmental psychology The formal study of how environments affect behavior. Epinephrine An adrenal hormone that tends to arouse the body; epinephrine is associated with fear. (Also known as adrenaline.) episodic drive. A drive that occurs in distinct episodes. episodic memory A subpart of declarative memory that records personal experiences that are linked with specific times and places. Equal-status contact Social interaction that occurs on an equal footing, without obvious differences in power or status. erectile disorder An inability to maintain an erection for lovemaking erogenous zones Areas of the body that produce pleasure and/or provoke erotic desire. Escape Reducing discomfort by leaving frustrating situations or by psychologically withdrawing from them. escape learning Learning to make a response in order to end an aversive stimulus. estrogen Any of a number of female sex hormones. estrogens Any of a number of female sex hormones. estrus, Changes in the sexual drives of animals that create a desire for mating; particularly used to refer to females in heat. Ethnocentrism Placing one's own group or race at the center—that is, tending to reject all other groups but one's own. ethologist A person who studies the natural behavior patterns of animals. Eugenics Selective breeding for desirable characteristics. evaluation fears Fears of being inadequate, embarrassed, ridiculed, or rejected. Evolutionary psychologists The study of how human evolution and genetics might explain our current behavior. Evolutionary psychology Study of the evolutionary origins of human behavior patterns. Excitement phase The first phase of sexual response, indicated by initialv signs of sexual arousal. Existential therapy An insight therapy that focuses on the elemental problems of existence, such as death, meaning, choice, and responsibility; emphasizes making courageous life choices. expectancies An anticipation concerning future events or relationships. expectancy, Anticipation about the effect a response will have, especially regarding reinforcement. experiential cognition Style of thought arising during passive experience. Experiential intelligence Specialized knowledge and skills acquired through learning and experience. experiment. A formal trial undertaken to confirm or disconfirm a hypothesis about cause and effect. experimental group In a controlled experiment, the group of subjects exposed to the independent variable or experimental condition. experimental method Investigating causes of behavior through controlled experimentation. experimental subjects Humans (also referred to as participants) or animals whose behavior is investigated in an experiment. Variable Any condition that changes or can be made to change; a measure, event, or state that may vary. Expert power Social power derived from possession of knowledge or expertise. Explicit memory A memory that a person is aware of having; a memory that is consciously retrieved. expressive (emotion-oriented) behaviors Behaviors that express or communicate emotion or personal feelings. external cause A cause of behavior that is assumed to lie outside a person. extinction The weakening of a conditioned response through removal of reinforcement. Extracellular thirst Thirst caused by a reduction in the volume of fluids found between body cells. Extraneous variables Conditions or factors excluded from influencing the outcome of an experiment. extrasensory perception (ESP) The purported ability to perceive events in ways that cannot be explained by known capacities of the sensory organs. extrinsic motivation Motivation based on obvious external rewards, obligations, or similar factors. extroversion Ego attitude in which energy is mainly directed outward. extrovert A person whose attention is directed outward; a bold, outgoing person. eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) A technique for reducing fear or anxiety; based on holding upsetting thoughts in mind while rapidly moving the eyes from side to side. End of terms. Return to top. facial agnosia, An inability to identify seen objects. facial feedback hypothesis States that sensations from facial expressions help define what emotion a person feels. factor analysis, A statistical technique used to correlate multiple measurements and identify general underlying factors. false memory A memory that can seem accurate but is not. Familial intellectual disability Mild intellectual disability associated with homes that are intellectually, nutritionally, and emotionally impoverished. family therapy Technique in which all family members participate, both individually and as a group, to change destructive relationships and communication patterns. Feedback Information returned to a person about the effects a response has had; also known as knowledge of results. feeling of knowing The ability to predict beforehand whether one will be able to remember something. female orgasmic disorder A persistent inability to reach orgasm during lovemaking. female sexual arousal disorder A lack of physical arousal to sexual stimulation. Figure-ground organization Organizing a perception so that part of a stimulus appears to stand out as an object (figure) against a less prominent background (ground). five-factor model, Proposes that there are five universal dimensions of personality. fixation The tendency to repeat wrong solutions or faulty responses, especially as a result of becoming blind to alternatives. fixed interval (FI) schedule A reinforcer is given only when a correct response is made after a set amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response. Responses made during the time interval are not reinforced. fixed ratio (FR) schedule A set number of correct responses must be made to get a reinforcer. For example, a reinforcer is given for every four correct responses. flashbulb memory Memory created at times of high emotion that seems especially vivid. Flexibility In tests of creativity, flexibility is indicated by the number of different types of solutions produced. flextime, A work schedule that allows flexible starting and quitting times. Fluency In tests of creativity, fluency refers to the total number of solutions produced. Fluid intelligence The ability to solve novel problems involving perceptual speed or rapid insight. foot-in-the-door effect The tendency for a person who has first complied with a small request to be more likely later to fulfill a larger request. Forcible rape Sexual intercourse carried out against the victim’s will, under the threat of violence or bodily injury. Fragile X syndrome A genetic form of intellectual disability caused by a defect in the X chromosome. framed In thought, the terms in which a problem is stated or the way that it is structured. Fraternal twins Twins conceived from two separate eggs. free association In psychoanalysis, the technique of having a client say anything that comes to mind, regardless of how embarrassing or unimportant it may seem. free will, The idea that human beings are capable of freely making choices or decisions. frequency distribution A table that divides an entire range of scores into a series of classes and then records the number of scores that fall into each class. Frequency polygon A graph of a frequency distribution in which the number of scores falling in each class is represented by points on a line. frequency theory Holds that tones up to 4,000 hertz are converted to nerve impulses that match the frequency of each tone. frontal lobes Areas of the cortex associated with movement, the sense of self, and higher mental functions. Frustration A negative emotional state that occurs when one is prevented from reaching a goal. frustration-aggression hypothesis States that frustration tends to lead to aggression. fully functioning person, A person living in harmony with her or his deepest feelings, impulses, and intuitions. functional A detailed, practical, and workable solution. functional fixedness A rigidity in problem solving s some additional insight problems you may want tcaused by an inability to see new uses for familiar objects. functional MRI (fMRI) MRI technique that records brain activity. functionalism The school of psychology concerned with how behavior and mental abilities help people adapt to their environments. fundamental attribution error. The tendency to attribute the behavior of others to internal causes (personality, likes, and so forth) g-factor A general ability factor proposed to underly intelligence; the core of general intellectual ability that involves reasoning, problem-solving ability, knowledge, and memory. galvanic skin response (GSR). A change in the electrical resistance (or inversely, the conductance) of the skin, due to sweating. gate control theory Proposes that pain messages pass through neural “gates” in the spinal cord. gender Psychological and social characteristics associated with being male or female; defined especially by one’s gender identity and learned gender roles. gender bias in research. A tendency for females and female issues to be underrepresented in research, psychological or otherwise. gender identity One’s personal, private sense of maleness or femaleness. gender role The pattern of behaviors that are regarded as “male” or “female” by one’s culture; sometimes also referred to as a sex role. gender role socialization The process of learning gender behaviors considered appropriate for one’s sex in a given culture. Gender role stereotypes Oversimplified and widely held beliefs about the basic characteristics of men and women. gender variant Condition in which a person’s biological sex does not match his or her preferred gender. General adaptation syndrome (GAS). A series of bodily reactions to prolonged stress; occurs in three stages: alarm, resistance, and exhaustion. General intelligence test A test that measures a wide variety of mental abilities. general solution A solution that correctly states the requirements for success but not in enough detail for further action. generalized anxiety disorder A chronic state of tension and worry about work, relationships, ability, or impending disaster. generativity A conflict of middle adulthood in which self-interest is countered by an interest in guiding the next generation. Genes Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information. genetic disorders Problems caused by defects in the genes or by inherited characteristics. genetic sex Sex as indicated by the presence of XX (female) or XY (male) chromosomes. genital sex Sex as indicated by the presence of male or female genitals. X Gestalt psychologists A school of psychology emphasizing the study of thinking, learning, and perception in whole units, not by analysis into parts. Gestalt therapy An approach that focuses on immediate experience and awareness to help clients rebuild thinking, feeling, and acting into connected wholes; emphasizes the integration of fragmented experiences. Giftedness Either the possession of a high IQ or special talents or aptitudes. goal The target or objective of motivated behavior. gonadal sex Sex as indicated by the presence of ovaries (female) or testes (male). gonads The primary sex glands—the testes in males and ovaries in females. grammar A set of rules for combining language units into meaningful speech or writing. Graphical statistics Techniques for presenting numbers pictorially, often by plotting them on a graph. Group cohesiveness The degree of attraction among group members or their commitment to remaining in the group. Group intelligence test Any intelligence test that can be administered to a group of people with minimal supervision. Group prejudice Prejudice held out of conformity to group views. group sanctions. Rewards and punishments (such as approval or disapproval) administered by groups to enforce conformity among members. Group structure The network of roles, communication pathways, and power in a group. group therapy Psychotherapy conducted in a group setting to make therapeutic use of group dynamics. groupthink A compulsion by members of decision-making groups to maintain agreement, even at the cost of critical thinking. growth hormone A hormone, secreted by the pituitary gland, that promotes body growth. growth needs, In Maslow’s hierarchy, the higher-level needs associated with self-actualization. Guided imagery Intentional visualization of images that are calming, relaxing, or beneficial in other ways. guilty knowledge test Polygraph procedure involving testing people with knowledge only a guilty person could know. gustation The sense of taste. habits A deeply ingrained, learned pattern of behavior. habituate A decrease in perceptual response to a repeated stimulus. hair cells Receptor cells within the cochlea that transduce vibrations into nerve impulses. Halfway house A community-based facility for individuals making the transition from an institution (mental hospital, prison, and so forth) to independent living. hallucination An imaginary sensation—such as seeing, hearing, or smelling something that does not exist in the external world. Hallucinations An imaginary sensation, such as seeing, hearing, or smelling things that don't exist in the real world. hallucinogen A substance that alters or distorts sensory impressions. halo effect, The tendency to generalize a favorable or unfavorable first impression to unrelated details of personality. handedness, A preference for the right or left hand in most activities. Hardy personality. A personality style associated with superior stress resistance. Hassle, (microstressor) Any distressing, day-to-day annoyance. Health psychology Study of the ways in which behavioral principles can be used to prevent illness and promote health. Heredity (“nature”) The transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to offspring through genes. heterosexism The belief that heterosexuality is better or more natural than homosexuality. Heterosexuals A person romantically and erotically attracted to members of the opposite sex. heuristic Any strategy or technique that aids problem solving, especially by limiting the number of possible solutions to be tried. hidden observer A detached part of the hypnotized person's awareness that silently observes events. hierarchy A rank-ordered series of higher and lower amounts, levels, degrees, or steps. hierarchy of human needs, Abraham Maslow’s ordering of needs, based on their presumed strength or potency. higher order conditioning Classical conditioning in which a conditioned stimulus is used to reinforce further learning; that is, a CS is used as if it were a US. hippocampus A brain structure associated with emotion and the transfer of information from short-term memory to long-term memory. hippocampus A part of the limbic system associated with storing memories. Histogram A graph of a frequency distribution in which the number of scores falling in each class is represented by vertical bars. homeostasis A steady state of body equilibrium. homogamy Marriage of two people who are similar to one another. Homosexuals A person romantically and erotically attracted to same-sex persons. hormonal sex Sex as indicated by a preponderance of estrogens (female) or androgens (male) in the body. hormones, A glandular secretion that affects bodily functions or behavior. human factors psychology A specialty concerned with making machines and work environments compatible with human perceptual and physical capacities. human nature Those traits, qualities, potentials, and behavior patterns most characteristic of the human species. human-computer interaction (HCI) The application of human factors to the design of computers and computer software. Humanism An approach that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals. Humanism An approach to psychology that focuses on human experience, problems, potentials, and ideals. Hydrocephaly A buildup of cerebrospinal fluid within brain cavities. hyperopia Difficulty focusing nearby objects (farsightedness). hypersexual disorder A persistent, troubling excess of sexual desire. hypersomnia Excessive daytime sleepiness. hypnosis An altered state of consciousness characterized by narrowed attention and increased suggestibility. Hypnotic susceptibility One's capacity for becoming hypnotized. hypoactive sexual desire A persistent, upsetting loss of sexual desire. Hypochondriac A person who complains about illnesses that appear to be imaginary. hypochondriasis A preoccupation with fears of having a serious disease. Ordinary physical signs are interpreted as proof that the person has a disease, but no physical disorder can be found. hypothalamus A small area at the base of the brain that regulates many aspects of motivation and emotion, especially hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior. hypothalamus A small area of the brain that regulates emotional behaviors and motives. hypothesis A statement of the predicted outcome of an experiment or an educated guess about the relationship between variables. hysteria (now called somatoform disorders) An outdated term describing people with physical symptoms (such as paralysis or numbness) for which no physical causes can be found. End of terms. Return to top. I-message A message that states the effect someone else’s behavior has on you. Iconic memory A mental image or visual representation. ideal self An idealized image of oneself (the person one would like to be). Identical twins Twins who develop from a single egg and have identical genes. identifiercation Feeling emotionally connected to a person and seeing oneself as like him or her. identity A conflict of adolescence involving the need to establish a personal identity. illogical Thought that is intuitive, haphazard, or irrational. illusion A misleading or misconstructed perception. illustrators, Gestures people use to illustrate what they are saying. Images Most often, a mental representation that has picture-like qualities; an icon. imitation, An attempt to match one’s own behavior to another person’s behavior. implicit memory A memory that a person does not know exists; a memory that is retrieved unconsciously. in-basket test A testing procedure that simulates the individual decisionmaking challenges that executives face. in-group A group with which a person identifies. inattentional blindness A failure to notice a stimulus because attention is focused elsewhere. incentive value The value of a goal above and beyond its ability to fill a need. incongruence. State that exists when there is a discrepancy between one’s experiences and self-image or between one’s self-image and ideal self. incremental Thinking marked by a series of small steps that lead to an original solution. Independent variables In an experiment, the condition being investigated as a possible cause of some change in behavior. The values that this variable takes are chosen by the experimenter. Individual intelligence test A test of intelligence designed to be given to a single individual by a trained specialist. individual traits, Personality traits that define a person’s unique individual qualities. individuating information Information that helps define a person as an individual, rather than as a member of a group or social category. inductive Thinking in which a general rule or principle is gathered from a series of specific examples; for instance, inferring the laws of gravity by observing many falling objects. Industrial/organizational (I/O) psychologists A field that focuses on the psychology of work and on behavior within organizations. industry A conflict in middle childhood centered on lack of support for industrious behavior, which can result in feelings of inferiority. inferential statistics Mathematical tools used for decision making, for generalizing from small samples, and for drawing conclusions. information bits Meaningful units of information, such as numbers, letters, words, or phrases. Information chunks Information bits grouped into larger units. informational view (of conditioning) Perspective that explains learning in terms of information imparted by events in the environment. initiative A conflict between learning to take initiative and overcoming feelings of guilt about doing so. insanity, A legal term that refers to a mental inability to manage one's affairs or to be aware of the consequences of one's actions. Insecure-ambivalent An anxious emotional bond marked by both a desire to be with a parent or caregiver and some resistance to being reunited. Insecure-avoidant An anxious emotional bond marked by a tendency to avoid reunion with a parent or caregiver. insight A sudden mental reorganization of a problem that makes the solution obvious. Insomnia Difficulty in getting to sleep or staying asleep. instrumental (goal-directed) behaviors Behaviors directed toward the achievement of some goal; behaviors that are instrumental in producing some effect. integrity A conflict in old age between feelings of integrity and the despair of viewing previous life events with regret. Intellectual disability (formerly mental retardation) The presence of a developmental disability, a formal IQ score below 70, or a significant impairment of adaptive behavior. Intelligence An overall capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment. Intelligence quotient (IQ) An index of intelligence defined as mental age divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100. Interference The tendency for new memories to impair retrieval of older memories, and the reverse. Internal cause, A cause of behavior assumed to lie within a person—for instance, a need, preference, or personality trait. Interpersonal attraction Social attraction to another person. interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) A brief dynamic psychotherapy designed to help people by improving their relationships with other people. intersexual person (formerly hermaphrodite) A person who has genitals suggestive of both sexes. Interview (personality) A face-to-face meeting held for the purpose of gaining information about an individual’s personal history, personality traits, current psychological state, and so forth. intimacy The challenge of overcoming a sense of isolation by establishing intimacy with others. Intimacy Feelings of connectedness and affection for another person. Intimate distance. The most private space immediately surrounding the body (up to about 18inches from the skin). intracellular thirst Thirst triggered when fluid is drawn out of cells due to an increased concentration of salts and minerals outside the cell. Intrinsic motivation Motivation that comes from within, rather than from external rewards; motivation based on personal enjoyment of a task or activity. introspection, To look within; to examine one's own thoughts, feelings, or sensations. introversion Ego attitude in which energy is mainly directed inward. introvert A person whose attention is focused inward; a shy, reserved, Intuition Quick, impulsive thought that does not make use of formal logic or clear reasoning. intuitive Thinking that makes little or no use of reasoning and logic. ion channels. Tiny openings through the axon membrane. End of terms. Return to top. James-Lange theory States that emotional feelings follow bodily arousal and come from awareness of such arousal. jigsaw classroom A method of reducing prejudice; each student receives only part of the information needed to complete a project or prepare for a test. job analysis, A detailed description of the skills, knowledge, and activities required by a particular job. Job enrichment Making a job more personally rewarding, interesting, or intrinsically motivating; typically involves increasing worker knowledge. job satisfaction, The degree to which a person is comfortable with or satisfied with his or her work. Just-world beliefs Belief that people generally get what they deserve. End of terms. Return to top. keyword method As an aid to memory, using a familiar word or image to link two items. Kinesics Study of the meaning of body movements, posture, hand gestures, and facial expressions; commonly called body language. kinesthetic senses The senses of body movement and positioning. knowledge of results (KR) Informational feedback. knowledge workers Workers who add value to their company by creating and manipulating information. End of terms. Return to top. Language Words or symbols, and rules for combining them, that are used for thinking and communication. Large group awareness training Any of a number of programs (many of them commercialized) that claim to increase self- awareness and facilitate constructive personal change. latent content The hidden or symbolic meaning of a dream, as revealed by dream interpretation and analysis. Latent learning Learning that occurs without obvious reinforcement and that remains unexpressed until reinforcement is provided. Lateralization Differences between the two sides of the body, especially differences in the abilities of the brain hemispheres. Law of effect Responses that lead to desirable effects are repeated; those that produce undesirable results are not. leaderless group discussion. A test of leadership that simulates group decision making and problem solving. Learned helplessness, A learned inability to overcome obstacles or to avoid punishment; learned passivity and inaction to aversive stimuli. Learned motives Motives based on learned needs, drives, and goals. Learning Any relatively permanent change in behavior that can be attributed to experience. learning theorists A psychologist interested in the ways that learning shapes behavior and explains personality. Legitimate power Social power based on a person’s position as an agent of an accepted social order. lexigram A geometric shape used as a symbol for a word. Life skills training A program that teaches stress reduction, self-protection, decision making, self-control, and social skills. Lifestyle disease, A disease related to health-damaging personal habits. light sleep Stage 1 sleep, marked by small irregular brainwaves and some alpha waves. Like A relationship based on intimacy, but lacking passion and commitment. limbic system A system in the forebrain that is closely linked with emotional response. linguistic relativity hypothesis The idea that the words we use not only reflect our thoughts but can shape them as well. lobes of the cerebral cortex Areas on the left and right cortex bordered by major fissures or defined by their functions. localize function The research strategy of linking specific structures in the brain with specific psychological or behavioral functions. lock and key theory of olfaction Holds that odors are related to the shapes of chemical molecules. logical Drawing conclusions on the basis of formal principles of reasoning. logical consequences Reasonable consequences that are defined by parents. long-term memory (LTM) The memory system used for relatively permanent storage of meaningful information. long-term potentiation Brain mechanism used to form lasting memories by strengthening the connection between neurons that become more active at the same time. low-ball technique A strategy in which commitment is gained first to reasonable or desirable terms, which are then made less reasonable or desirable. lucid dream A dream in which the dreamer feels awake and capable of normal thought and action. End of terms. Return to top. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) An imaging technique that results in a three-dimensional image of the brain or body, based on its response to a magnetic field. maintenance rehearsal Silently repeating or mentally reviewing information to hold it in short-term memory. major depressive disorder. A mood disorder in which the person has suffered one or more intense episodes of depression. Major mood disorders Disorders marked by lasting extremes of mood or emotion and sometimes accompanied by psychotic symptoms. maladaptive. Behavior arising from an underlying psychological or biological dysfunction that makes it difficult to adapt to the environment and meet the demands of day-to-day life. male orgasmic disorder A persistent inability to reach orgasm during lovemaking. management by objectives, A management technique in which employees are given specific goals to meet in their work. Management techniques Combining praise, recognition, approval, rules, and reasoning to enforce child discipline mandalas A circular design representing the balance, unity, and completion of the unconscious self. manifest content The surface, “visible” content of a dream; dream images as they are remembered by the dreamer. massed practice A
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