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Chapter 10

Psychology Chapter 10.docx

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Ronald Cummings

Psychology Chapter 10 Motivation and EmotionMotivationMotivation internal processes that initiate sustain and direct activities dynamics of behaviourA Model of MotivationNeed am internal deficiency that may energize behaviour begin motivated activities needs cause driveDrive the psychological expression of internal needs or valued goalsResponse any action glandular activity or other identifiable behaviourGoal the target or object of motivated behaviourMotivated behaviour can be energized by the pull of external stimuli as well as by the push of internal needsIncentivesIncentive Value the value of a goal above and beyond its ability to fill a need different to everyoneDesirable goals can motivate behaviour even when there is an absence of an internal needActions are energized by a mixture of internal needs and external incentivesTypes of Motives 1 Biological Motives innate motives based on biological needs must be met for survival hunger thirst sleep air 2 Stimulus Motives innate needs for stimulation and information not necessary for survival activity curiosity exploration physical contact 3 Learned Motives motives based on learned needs drives and goals related to learned needs for power affiliation approval security and fear and aggressionBiological Motives and HomeostasisBiological drives are essential because they maintain homeostasis bodily equilibriumHomeostasis means steady state optimal levels need to be maintained in the bodyWhen the body deviates from ideal levels automatic reactions begin to restore equilibriumCircadian Rhythms cyclical changes in bodily functions and arousal levels that vary on a schedule approximating a 24hour dayNeeds and drives can change from moment to moment but motivations can also last over long periods of timeBody activity is guided by internal biological clocksPeople are usually more motivated and alert at the high point of their circadian rhythmsShift Work and Jet Lag
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