PSYC 1F90 Chapter Notes -Apperception, Toilet Training

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15 Apr 2012
Cengage now: Ch. 12: Personality
1. Humanists view human nature as inherently: [good]
2. ________ refers to the mental "picture" you have of your own personality. [self-concept]
3. Mark was described by a Freudian psychologist as someone who likes to shout, curse, and bite
when he gets angry. According to Freudian theory, Mark has a(n) ________ personality. [oral-
4. Micah wanted to assess the behavior of Joel, a kindergartener. Through a two-way mirror, she conducted
a(n) ________ where she counted the frequency of specific behaviors without his knowledge. [behavioral
5. A person with low self-esteem is likely to be: [all of these (insecure, lacking in confidence, self-critical)]
6. Which of the following is NOT a limitation of the personality interview methodology? [it is fast]
7. The concept of ________ refers to the anticipation that a response will be reinforced.
8. The five-factor model of personality includes all of the following EXCEPT: [authenticity]
9. A ________ is a system of concepts, assumptions, and ideas proposed to explain personality. [personality
10. Sara has been described by her friends as being shy. From this description, we can probably deduce that
she displays which of the following personality traits? [all of these (a tendency to avoid others,
uneasiness while socializing, preoccupation]
11. According to Freud, the ego is governed by the: [reality principle]
12. Learning theorists are interested in ________, which refer to external causes of our actions.
[situational determinants]
13. According to Seligman, Peterson, and others (2004), which of the following positive personality traits
contribute to well-being and life satisfaction? [courage]
14. Cattell found that surface traits often appeared together in groups so that they seemed to represent a single
more basic trait of personality called: [source traits]
15. Unlike sudden murderers, habitually violent inmates are: [impulsive]
16. Glen took a personality test where he saw various scenes and he had to make up a story about
what was going on. He was probably taking the: [thematic apperception test]
17. According to behaviorists: [personality is acquired through conditioning and observational
18. According to Rogers, much behavior can be explained by maintaining consistency between the self-image
and our actions. When a person who thinks of himself as generous refuses to make a donation to the
Salvation Army, this individual is said to exist in a state of: [incongruence]
19. Mike visited a psychologist to assess his personality. The psychologist kept the conversation
informal and discussed topics freely as they arose. She was conducting a(n): [unstructured
20. In general, ________ are stable qualities that an individual displays in most situations.
[personality traits]
21. Which of the psychosexual stages is associated with toilet training (ages 1-3 years)? [anal]
22. James took a personality test that assessed his Big 5 traits. He scored very highly on items that assessed
"perfectionism." To what dimension is this related? [conscientiousness]
23. What was Freud's term for life instincts? [eros]
24. According to the Humanistic school of thought, we are creative beings capable of ________. [free choice]
25. According to Allport, the basic building blocks of personality are called: [central traits]
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