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Lifespan development (PSYC 2P12) Chapter 10 notes Emerging into adulthood- not a universal life stage For exploring- trying out options before committing to adult roles. Ability to think and reason in top form -Feel the need to totally recenter our lives It means to accept responsibility, support yourself and make your own independent decisions about life -Takes decades (defined by variability, longevity, the need for education and ethic that stresses personal freedom) Spain, Italy and Greece- norms are against cohabitation and will attend university close to home Scandinavia- economy is better so independence is a societal goal. Being married is not important for having children. Stress free interlude (time for exploring) Fun fact- commitment, money and independence level all influence relationship choices. Changes with every relationship USA- Young people leaving home (18 years old) but can also findit difficult to leave home Leaving home- a rite of passage – first step to freedom (independence) Parent child relationships- Report less conflict after their children leave home -more adult to adult conversations Physically leaving the house has nothing to do with becoming disconnected from parents Mother typically provides vital support Leaving home making adult? Answer can be yes but, due to economy if they don’t leave home this could also be true. Low income (socioeconomic) can’t move because they can’t afford to 2/3 freshmen have financial concerns Was normal for people to stay home and have multigenerational family members in one house Values impact moving out, they might be “put family first” Social clock Shared age norms -guidelines to what behaviors are appropriate at different ages -Set by society, shaped by our own priorities and goals. Earlier timetable- people looking to get married or have children and nothing else -Problem: not always under our control -Mental disorders such as alcoholism or debilitating depression erupt in early 20s *undergo mental makeover, decide who to be. Identity Erikson’s theory- deciding who to be as a person in making transition to adulthood Many teens suffer from Role Confusion -Lack of any sense of a future adult path. (Finding it impossible to move ahead) Confusion- an aimless drifting or shutting down Marcia Identity statuses Identity diffusion- when a person feels aimless or totally blocked without any adult life path Identity foreclosure- when a person decides on a life path without any self-exploration or thought (usually handed down from authority) Moratorium- engaged in the exciting, healthy search for an adult self. -Leads to identity achievement- decided definite path. -They are constantly shifting, often going back and forth. Moratorium in depth- carefully exploring your chosen profession and confirming it is right. Multiracial- may feel they don’t have an ethnic home Career -often enter college with unrealistic goals Emotional growth 1 in 6 moderately depressed teens become less happy over the next three years. Conscientiousness (temperamental dimension) -become more reliable and develop better self-control Emerging adults- capable of reasoning bout real world dilemas in complex, thoughtful ways Rise in executive functions -may be developed frontal lobes or outside world Flow- Feeling total absorption in challenging, goal- oriented activity. -different from “feeling happy” -enter altered state of consciousness and forget the outside world. -depends on delicate person-environment fit College -low SES young people are far less likely to graduate from college -money matters (hard to work and go to school) -Most return Inner development occurs during the undergraduate years. -get to know your professors! GET involved! Meet people! Love Intimacy- connecting with a partner in a mutual loving relationship Interracial dating -more tolerant of other cultures Same sex romance May have difficulty communicating with parents, don’t assume all have the same view. Stimulus-value-role theory Stimulus-making judgments based on external characteristics Value- Comparison phase- making judgment’s based on inner values Role phase- work on lives together Expect couples to be similar in social status due to homogamy (similarity)- wanting someone to match us. -need to mesh with family and friends “Ideal self”- person we would like to be. Similar personality - different strong personalities Idealize partner for better relationship “Commitment” is different from love. Adult attachment styles Preoccupied/ambivalent- Insecure attachment falls quickly and deeply in love- end up being rejected or feeling chronically unfulfilled. Avoidant/dismissive- insecure attachment, withholding, aloof, and reluctant to engage- don’t share and don’t get close. Securely attached- fully open to love. Give space but firmly committed + more forgiving. Chapter 11 Late- twentieth- century change -deinstitutionalization of marriage -from standard adult institution to more optional choice Lack of decent jobs major reason why people don’t wed U-shaped curve of marital satisfaction- happy, sad, happy. -Happy after children leave nest (can focus on each other again) -Idealize partner Sternberg’s triangular theory of love Every relationship needs three components Passion (sexual arousal) Intimacy (feeling of closeness) Commitment (typically marriage) Passion alone = crush Intimacy alone- warm caring feeling for a best friend Commitment alone= empty marriages Best state for all three: Consummate love -Have engaging, flow-inducing, self-expansion activities -Grow as a person Happy couples -High ration of positive to negative comments -Don’t get person when they argue -Give partners space Demand- withdrawal interaction One partner wants more- second doesn’t want more, become separate People have to be willing to let go of their anger and forgive Divorce Often due to extramarital affair - Can produce emotional growth and enhanced efficacy feelings Gender Dads disengage from families by not paying support or perhaps not being able to see children at all. Parenthood Dramatic decline in fertility rates -money and poor economy could be the cause Parenthood makes couples less intimate and happy - Changes passion and intimacy (focusing on child) - Produces more traditional (and potentially conflict-ridden) marital roles - Different parenting styles Motherhood -trouble controlling temper -can cause both negative and positive emotions -in the past 40 year’s mother today spend more time with their children Fatherhood New nurturer father- more than before but less than women/mothers -more involved with sons than daughters -may not be involved because they feel they need to make all the money Work More job changes, less stable careers and boundary less careers (constantly changing jobs) Cause negative emotions from: lack of job security. Putting longer work hours in -must work longer hours to cover job demands Technological revolution- connected to job after work hours More flexible= more hours Women more likely to earn degrees but still have more erratic less continuous “careers” - Women may see their work role as secondary to their spouse When men are unemployed, they are sometimes less likely to do the work at home Occupational segregation- separation of jobs into male jobs and female jobs Female type jobs have lower wages -17,000 less Women receive low levels of co-worker support Men receive most collegial work conditions of all. Young person with poor self-esteem, depression and low self-efficacy, show no income advantages of finishing college at all Caring attachment figures during adulthood provide us with a platform to confidently venture into the world. Basics needed: loving support, high self-efficacy, and optimistic world view + college degree -match career to interests SAE- social, artistic, entrepreneurial SIE- Social, investigative, entrepreneurial Intrinsic career rewards- working is fulfilling in itself -must have security needs satisfied Extrinsic- working for reward Good job must not have “role ambiguity” and have clear role demands Must not have less-competent people with too much work Too much to do= role overload Torn between competing life demands = role conflict Family work conflict- torn between family and work Unemployment universal downer- impairing self-esteem for both sexes -change perceptions, not your fault Chapter 12 Midlife- different for everyone Big Five traits Neuroticism- mental health versus psychological disturbants Low= well-adjusted High= hostile Extraversion Openness to experience Conscientiousness- thinking of others Agreeableness- kindness Agreeableness and conscientiousness strengthen with age Age 30 all stabilize Evocative- “nature produces nurture” Generatively- nurturing the next generation becomes our main priority? - It gradually grows but we must know who we are Redemption sequences- examples of devastating events that turned out in a positive way Commitment script- high generative adults= high memories of feeling special. Sensitive to others misfortunes - Having strong sense of self-efficacy Only 3 traumas, any more and life satisfaction decreases -tolerable but not too great Do we get happier with age? YES Positive moods outweigh negative ones Higher age= greater emotional stability We flourish when people around us flourish Intelligence WAIS- general intelligence, Adult IQ - Studies verbal and performance scales - Verbal – vocabulary/ math - Performance – puzzles/arranging blocks Seattle longitudinal study- study of intelligence and age Reach our intellectual peak during 40s and early 50s Crystallized intelligence- knowledge base (50s) Fluid intelligence- a
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