Lifespan development (PSYC 2P12)
Chapter 10 notes
Emerging into adulthood- not a universal life stage
For exploring- trying out options before committing to adult roles.
Ability to think and reason in top form
-Feel the need to totally recenter our lives
It means to accept responsibility, support yourself and make your own independent decisions about life
-Takes decades (defined by variability, longevity, the need for education and ethic that stresses
Spain, Italy and Greece- norms are against cohabitation and will attend university close to home
Scandinavia- economy is better so independence is a societal goal. Being married is not important for
Stress free interlude (time for exploring)
Fun fact- commitment, money and independence level all influence relationship choices. Changes with
USA- Young people leaving home (18 years old) but can also findit difficult to leave home
Leaving home- a rite of passage – first step to freedom (independence)
Parent child relationships- Report less conflict after their children leave home
-more adult to adult conversations
Physically leaving the house has nothing to do with becoming disconnected from parents
Mother typically provides vital support
Leaving home making adult?
Answer can be yes but, due to economy if they don’t leave home this could also be true.
Low income (socioeconomic) can’t move because they can’t afford to
2/3 freshmen have financial concerns
Was normal for people to stay home and have multigenerational family members in one house
Values impact moving out, they might be “put family first”
Shared age norms
-guidelines to what behaviors are appropriate at different ages
-Set by society, shaped by our own priorities and goals.
Earlier timetable- people looking to get married or have children and nothing else
-Problem: not always under our control
-Mental disorders such as alcoholism or debilitating depression erupt in early 20s
*undergo mental makeover, decide who to be. Identity
Erikson’s theory- deciding who to be as a person in making transition to adulthood
Many teens suffer from Role Confusion
-Lack of any sense of a future adult path. (Finding it impossible to move ahead)
Confusion- an aimless drifting or shutting down
Marcia Identity statuses
Identity diffusion- when a person feels aimless or totally blocked without any adult life path
Identity foreclosure- when a person decides on a life path without any self-exploration or thought
(usually handed down from authority)
Moratorium- engaged in the exciting, healthy search for an adult self.
-Leads to identity achievement- decided definite path.
-They are constantly shifting, often going back and forth.
Moratorium in depth- carefully exploring your chosen profession and confirming it is right.
Multiracial- may feel they don’t have an ethnic home
-often enter college with unrealistic goals
1 in 6 moderately depressed teens become less happy over the next three years.
Conscientiousness (temperamental dimension)
-become more reliable and develop better self-control
Emerging adults- capable of reasoning bout real world dilemas in complex, thoughtful ways
Rise in executive functions
-may be developed frontal lobes or outside world
Flow- Feeling total absorption in challenging, goal- oriented activity.
-different from “feeling happy”
-enter altered state of consciousness and forget the outside world.
-depends on delicate person-environment fit
-low SES young people are far less likely to graduate from college
-money matters (hard to work and go to school)
Inner development occurs during the undergraduate years.
-get to know your professors! GET involved! Meet people!
Intimacy- connecting with a partner in a mutual loving relationship Interracial dating
-more tolerant of other cultures
Same sex romance
May have difficulty communicating with parents, don’t assume all have the same view.
Stimulus-making judgments based on external characteristics
Value- Comparison phase- making judgment’s based on inner values
Role phase- work on lives together
Expect couples to be similar in social status due to homogamy (similarity)- wanting someone to match
-need to mesh with family and friends
“Ideal self”- person we would like to be.
Similar personality - different strong personalities
Idealize partner for better relationship
“Commitment” is different from love.
Adult attachment styles
Preoccupied/ambivalent- Insecure attachment falls quickly and deeply in love- end up being rejected or
feeling chronically unfulfilled.
Avoidant/dismissive- insecure attachment, withholding, aloof, and reluctant to engage- don’t share and
don’t get close.
Securely attached- fully open to love. Give space but firmly committed + more forgiving.
Late- twentieth- century change
-deinstitutionalization of marriage
-from standard adult institution to more optional choice
Lack of decent jobs major reason why people don’t wed
U-shaped curve of marital satisfaction- happy, sad, happy.
-Happy after children leave nest (can focus on each other again)
Sternberg’s triangular theory of love
Every relationship needs three components
Passion (sexual arousal)
Intimacy (feeling of closeness)
Commitment (typically marriage)
Passion alone = crush
Intimacy alone- warm caring feeling for a best friend
Commitment alone= empty marriages
Best state for all three: Consummate love -Have engaging, flow-inducing, self-expansion activities
-Grow as a person
-High ration of positive to negative comments
-Don’t get person when they argue
-Give partners space
Demand- withdrawal interaction
One partner wants more- second doesn’t want more, become separate
People have to be willing to let go of their anger and forgive
Often due to extramarital affair
- Can produce emotional growth and enhanced efficacy feelings
Dads disengage from families by not paying support or perhaps not being able to see children at all.
Dramatic decline in fertility rates
-money and poor economy could be the cause
Parenthood makes couples less intimate and happy
- Changes passion and intimacy (focusing on child)
- Produces more traditional (and potentially conflict-ridden) marital roles
- Different parenting styles
-trouble controlling temper
-can cause both negative and positive emotions
-in the past 40 year’s mother today spend more time with their children
New nurturer father- more than before but less than women/mothers
-more involved with sons than daughters
-may not be involved because they feel they need to make all the money
More job changes, less stable careers and boundary less careers (constantly changing jobs)
Cause negative emotions from: lack of job security.
Putting longer work hours in
-must work longer hours to cover job demands
Technological revolution- connected to job after work hours More flexible= more hours
Women more likely to earn degrees but still have more erratic less continuous “careers”
- Women may see their work role as secondary to their spouse
When men are unemployed, they are sometimes less likely to do the work at home
Occupational segregation- separation of jobs into male jobs and female jobs
Female type jobs have lower wages
Women receive low levels of co-worker support
Men receive most collegial work conditions of all.
Young person with poor self-esteem, depression and low self-efficacy, show no income advantages of
finishing college at all
Caring attachment figures during adulthood provide us with a platform to confidently venture into the
Basics needed: loving support, high self-efficacy, and optimistic world view + college degree
-match career to interests
SAE- social, artistic, entrepreneurial
SIE- Social, investigative, entrepreneurial
Intrinsic career rewards- working is fulfilling in itself
-must have security needs satisfied
Extrinsic- working for reward
Good job must not have “role ambiguity” and have clear role demands
Must not have less-competent people with too much work
Too much to do= role overload
Torn between competing life demands = role conflict
Family work conflict- torn between family and work
Unemployment universal downer- impairing self-esteem for both sexes
-change perceptions, not your fault
Midlife- different for everyone
Big Five traits
Neuroticism- mental health versus psychological disturbants
Low= well-adjusted High= hostile
Openness to experience Conscientiousness- thinking of others
Agreeableness and conscientiousness strengthen with age
Age 30 all stabilize
Evocative- “nature produces nurture”
Generatively- nurturing the next generation becomes our main priority?
- It gradually grows but we must know who we are
Redemption sequences- examples of devastating events that turned out in a positive way
Commitment script- high generative adults= high memories of feeling special. Sensitive to others
- Having strong sense of self-efficacy
Only 3 traumas, any more and life satisfaction decreases
-tolerable but not too great
Do we get happier with age? YES
Positive moods outweigh negative ones
Higher age= greater emotional stability
We flourish when people around us flourish
WAIS- general intelligence, Adult IQ
- Studies verbal and performance scales
- Verbal – vocabulary/ math
- Performance – puzzles/arranging blocks
Seattle longitudinal study- study of intelligence and age
Reach our intellectual peak during 40s and early 50s
Crystallized intelligence- knowledge base (50s)
Fluid intelligence- a