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Chapter 8

PSYC 2P12 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Peer Pressure, System Programming, Hypothalamus


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 2P12
Professor
Cathy Mondloch
Chapter
8

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PSYC 2P12 Chapter 8 – Physical Development
Puberty is the hormonal and physical changes by which children become sexy mature
human beings and reach their adult height. Puberty rite is a coming-of-age ritual,
usually beginning at some event such as first menstruation, and in traditional cultures
celebrates children’s transition to adulthood. The secular trend in puberty is a century
long decline in the average age at which children reach puberty in the developed world.
The HPG axis is the main hormonal system programming puberty; it involves triggering
a hypothalamic hormonal response in the pituitary which then releases hormones.
Primary sexual characteristics referred to body changes directly involved in
reproduction. Secondary sexual characteristics is the label for the hundreds of other
changes that accompany puberty, such as breast development.
Obesity causes early puberty in girls but not in boys. Early maturing girls are vulnerable
to having difficulties during their adolescent years. Because we choose friends who are
like us, early maturing girls gravitate toward becoming friends with older girls and boys.
Early maturing girls are more likely to have sex at a younger age, get worse grades than
classmates in the sixth and seventh grades, and are several times less likely to
graduate from high school than later developing peers. These negative effects happen
only when they are other risk factors in the child’s life.
For every child who moved to a larger more anonymous junior high, academic
performance tends to decline and self-confidence typically becomes shakier. What’s
essential to moving beyond school structure is a nurturing, authoritative environment.
Summary
Children’s reactions to puberty depend on the environment in which they
physically mature
with early maturing girls we need to take a special care to arrange the right body
environment fit
communication and education should be improved – especially for boys
Developmentalists urge parents to make an effort to discuss what is happening with the
same-sex child. They advise beginning these discussions when the child is at an age
when talking is emotionally easier, before the actual changes take place.
The thin ideal is a media driven cultural idea biphenyls need to be abnormally thin.
Checklist for teenage body dissatisfaction
Is this child temperamentally prone to anxiety depression?
Does this child vigorously subscribe to the thin ideal?
Is this child becoming obsessed with dieting or building muscle?
Does this child have insecure attachments, trouble expressing feelings, or
excessively low self-efficacy and self-esteem?
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