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Chapter 4-5

PSYC 2P12 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4-5: Early Head Start, Morpheme, Emor

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Cathy Mondloch

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PSYC 2P12 Chapter 4 Infancy: Socioemotional Development
Attachment: the powerful bond of love between a caregiver and child (or between
any 2 individuals)
Toddlerhood: the important transitional stage after babyhood, from roughly 1-2.5yrs
of age; de*ned by an intense attachment to caregivers and by an urgent need to
become independent
Primary attachment *gure: the closest person in a child’s or adult’s life
Proximity-seeking behavior: acting to maintain physical contact or to be close to an
attachment *gure
Preattachment phase: 1st phase of J. Bowlby’s developmental attachment sequence,
during the *rst 3 months of life, when infants show no visible signs of attachment
Social smile: *rst real smile, occurring at about 2 months of age
Attachment in the making: 2nd phase; from 4-7 months of age, babies slightly prefer
the primary caregiver
Clear-cut attachment: critical human attachment phase from 7 months through
toddlerhood de*ned by separation anxiety, stranger anxiety, and needing a primary
caregiver close
Separation anxiety: signal of clearcut attachment when a baby gets upset as a
primary caregiver departs
Stranger anxiety: beginning at about 7 months, when a baby grows vary of people
other than a primary caregiver
Attachment Styles
Strange situation: Mary Ainsworth’s procedure to measure attachment at age 1,
involving planned separations and reunions with a caregiver
Secure attachment: ideal; when a child responds with joy at being united with a
primary caregiver; in adulthood the genuine intimacy present in love relationships
Insecure attachment: deviation from the normally joyful response of being united
with a primary caregiver, signalling problems in the caregiver-child relationship
Avoidant attachment: insecure attachment style characterized by a childs
indi6erence to a primary caregiver at being reunited after separation
Anxious-Ambivalent attachment: an insecure attachment style characterized by a
childs intense distress when reunited with a primary caregiver after separation
Disorganized attachment: insecure attachment style characterized by responses
such as freezing or fear when a child is reunited with the primary caregiver in the
Strange Situation
The Attachment Dance
Synchrony: reciprocal aspect of the attachment relationship, with a caregiver and
infant responding emotionally to each other in a sensitive, exquisitely attuned way
Temperament: a person’s characteristic, inborn style of dealing with the world
Head start: federal program o6ering high quality day care at a center and other
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