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Chapter 4

Chapter 4.docx

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CHAPTER FOURCLINICAL ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY IN ASSESSMENT RELIABILITYinterrater reliability refers to the degree to which two independent observers or judges agreetestretest reliability measures the extent to which people being observed twice or taking the same test twice score in generally the same way Makes sense only when the theory assumes that people will not change greatly between testings on the variable being measuredalternateform reliability using two forms of tests rather than giving the same test twice perhaps when there is concern that people will remember their answers from the first test and aim merely to be consistent The extent to which scores on the two forms of the test are consistent internal consistency reliability assesses whether the items on a test are related to one anotherIn each of these types of reliability a correlation is calculated between raters or sets of items The higher the correlation the better the reliability VALIDITYValidity is generally related to whether a measure fulfills its intended purpose content validity refers to whether a measure adequately samples the domain of interestcriterion validity is evaluated by determining whether a measure is associated in an expected way with some other measure the criterion concurrent validity both variables are measured at the same point in time the relationships are concurrent predictive validity criterion validity can be assessed by evaluating the measures ability to predict some other variable that is measured in the future eg IQ tests used to predict future school performance construct validity is relelvant when we want to interpret a test as a measure of some characteristic or construct that is not simply defined A construct is an inferred attribute such as anxiousness that a test is trying to measure PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTCLINICAL INTERVIEWSinterview any interpersonal encounter conversational in style in which one person the interviewer uses language as the principal means of finding out about another the interviewee Characteristics of clinical interviews clinical interview is different from a casual conversation or a poll by the attention the interviewer pays to how the respondent answers or does not answer questions The paradigm within which an interviewer operates influences the type of information sought how it is obtained and how it is interpreted A psychoanalytically trained clinician can be expected to inquire about the persons childhood history because the analytic paradigm holds that the most significant aspects of a disturbed or normal persons developmental history are repressed into the unconsciousCreating a rapport is important as well as building trust It doesnt always suffice to be an authority figure such as a doctor to have a patient open up Empathising repeating what they said to show youre listening Interviews vary in the degree to which they are structured In practice most clinicians operate from only the vaguest outlines Exactly how information is collected is left largely up to the particular interviewer and depends too on the responsiveness and responses of the intervieweeBecause of the overwhelming majority of clinical interviews are conducted within confidential relationships it has not been possible to establish either their reliability or their validity through systematic research Structured Interviews At times mental health professionals need to collect standardized information particularly for making diagnostic judgements based on the DSM
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