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SOCI 2P00 (11)
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Chapter 5

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 2P00
Professor
Montazer
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 5: What are the Value and Descriptive Assumptions?  Assumptions are: o Hidden or unstated (in most cases) o Taken for granted o Influential in determining the conclusion o Potentially deceptive  To fully understand an argument, you must identify the assumptions General Guide for Identifying Assumptions  Look for both value and descriptive assumptions in the movement from reasons to the conclusions  An assumption is a belief, usually unstated, that is taken for granted and supports the explicit reasoning Value Conflicts and Assumptions  The differing values that stem from different frames of reference  Value assumption -> a taken-for-granted belief about the relative desirability of certain competing values From Values to Value Assumptions  A value assumption is an implicit preference for one value over another in a particular context. We use value preferences and value priorities as synonyms  Recognition of relative support for conflicting values or sets of values provides you with both an improved understanding of what you are reading and a basis for eventual evaluation of prescriptive arguments  Value assumptions are very contextual; they apply in one setting, but we make quite a different value priority when the specifics of the prescriptive issue change The Communicator’s Background as a Clue to Value Assumptions  Find out as much as you can about value preferences usually held by a person like the writer or speaker  You as a critical reader or listener can often quickly discover value preferences by thinking about the probably assumptions made by a person like the communicator  It isn’t necessarily true that because a person is a member of a group, she shares the particular value assumptions of the group Consequences as Clues to Value Assumptions  In prescriptive arguments, each position with respect to an issue leads to different consequences or outcomes o Each will have a certain likelihood of occurring, and each will also have some level of desirability or undesirability  How desirable a consequence is for an argued position wi
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