Chapter 7: How Good is the Evidence: Intuition, Personal Experience,
Case Examples, Testimonials, and Appeals to Authority?
Claims about “facts”
How good is the evidence: intuition, person experience, case exampes, testimonials, and
appeals to authority?
Factual claims – can be conclusions, reasons, or assumptions
o “can we count on such beliefs?”
o The greater the quality and quantity of evidence supporting a claim, the more we can
depend on it, and the more we can call the claim a “fact”
What is your proof? How do you know that’s true? Where’s your evidence? Why do you believe
that? Are you sure that’s true? Can you prove it? -> ask these questions to determine
o 1) Descriptive conclusions; 2) Reasons used to support either descriptive or prescriptive
conclusions; and 3) Descriptive assumptions
Sources of evidence (when we will be most likely to agree with a factual claim)
o 1) When the claim appears to be undisputed common knowledge; 2) When the claim is
the conclusion from a well-reasoned a