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Chapter 8

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 2P00
Professor
Montazer
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 8: How Good is the Evidence: Personal Observation, Research Studies, and Analogies  How good is the evidence: personal observation, research studies, and analogies?  Scientific method o Publicly verifiable data – data obtained under conditions such that other qualified people can make similar observations and et the same results o Control – use of special procedures to reduce error in observations and in the interpretation of research findings o Precision in language – precise and consistent in language  Problems with research findings o Varies in quality o Often contradict one another o Don’t prove conclusions o Researchers have expectations, attitudes, values, and needs that bias the questions they ask o Speakers/writers often distort or simplify research conclusions o Research “facts” change over time o Varies in how artificial it is o The need for financial gain, status, security, and other factors can affects research outcomes Pros Cons  Scientific research is subject to public  Research varies greatly in quality and verifiability artificiality  Research uses control to minimize  Research findings often contradict one extraneous factors another and facts can change over time  Scientific research is precise and  Research findings can only support consistent in the use of language conclusions  Scientific research is a human activity; it can be distorted and is not free of subjectivity  Impossibly certainty fallacy – assuming that a research conclusion should be rejected if it is not absolutely certain  Clues for evaluating research studie
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