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Canada (161,892)
Sociology (145)
SOCI 2P00 (11)
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Chapter 10

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Chapter 9: Are There Rival Causes  WHY  A rival cause is a plausible alternative explanation that can explain why a certain outcome occurred  Indicators of causal relations o X leads to.. o X influences.. o X is linked to.. o X deters.. o X increases the likelihood.. o X determines.. o X is associated with.. o X has the effect of..  Detecting rival causes can help us better react to causal conclusions encountered in.. o A) our everyday personal relationships o B) past or ongoing world events o C) results of research studies  Many kinds of events are open to explanation by rival causes  Experts can examine the same evidence and discover different causes to explain it  Most communicators will provide you with only their favoured causes; the critical reader or listener must generate rival causes  Generating rival causes is a creative process; usually, such causes will not be obvious  The certainty of a particular causal claim is inversely related to the number of plausible rival causes. Hence, identifying the multiple rival causes gives the critical thinker the proper sense of intellectual humility  Detecting rival causes o Can I think of any other way to interpret the evidence? o What else might have caused this act or these findings? o If I looked at this from another POV, what might I see as important causes? o If this interpretation is incorrect, what other interpretation might make sense?  Contributory causes – causes that help to create a total set of conditions necessary for the event to occur  Causal oversimplification fallacy – explaining an event by relying on causal factors that are insufficient to account for the event or by overemphasizing the role of one or more of these factors  Confusion of cause and effect fallacy – confusing the cause with the effect of an event or failing to recognize that the two events may be influencing each other  Neglect of a common cause fallacy – failure to recognize that two events may be related because of the effects of a common third factor  Post hoc fallacy – assuming that a particular event, B, is caused by another event, A, simply because B follows A in time  Fundamental attribution error – we typically overestimate the importance of personal tendencies relative to situati
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