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Chapter 5

SOCI 1F90 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Ethnocentrism, Determinism, Linguistic Determinism


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 1F90
Professor
Michelle Webber
Chapter
5

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September 16, 2015
Sociology Reading Notes pg. 118-140
CULTURE
WHAT IS CULTURE?
Culture- A complex collection of values, beliefs, behaviours, and material objects shared by a
group and passes on from one generation to the next
ORIGINS OF CULTURE
No one can really determine when culture began, for three reasons (very little material
evidence, much of culture is non material, many of the developments that enables our
ancestors to become cultural)
1. Social Life
2. Parental Care
3. Pair-Bonding
4. Subsistences
5. Environmental Adaption
6. Thought, Language, Art, and Religion
pg. 122
DEFINING FEATURES OF CULTURE
Five defining features: pg. 122
1. Culture is Learned
2. Culture is Shared
3. Culture is Transmitted
4. Culture is Cumulative
5. Culture is Human
Culture influences every area of our lives
Culture can be divided into two major segments:
-Material Culture (The tangible artifacts and physical objects found in a given culture)
-Nonmaterial Culture (The intangible and abstract components of society, including values and
norms)
Material culture encompasses the physical output of human labour and expression
Material culture helps up to adapt to, and prosper in, diverse and often challenging physical
environments
Nonmaterial culture represents a wide variety of values and norms that are passed on from
generation to generation
VALUES, NORMS, FOLKWAYS, MORES, LAWS, AND SANCTIONS
values form the foundation of what is considered acceptable
Values- Beliefs about ideal goals and behaviours that serve as standards for social life
-general guidelines on what society deems important
Norms- Culturally defined rules that outline appropriate behaviours
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