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Chapter 2

Week 4- 5 - Elemental Solutions (Chapter Two).docx

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BIOL 1902
Michael Runtz

Week 4 5Elemental Solutions Chapter Two1Environmental DefenceThe Climate Extreme Cold Abiotic challengeswind rain draught temperature extremesAffected HabitatoCattail marsh hardwood forest prairie grassland floating muskegoThorns on HawthornTwo ways animals body temperature is controlledEctotherms cold blooded animalsoBody temperature is controlled by their external environmentoThey are incapable of maintaining high body temperatures when it plummetsoSuch as frogs snakes turtles insects and spidersEndotherms warm blooded animalsoThey generate heat internally through cellular metabolic activityoKeeps core at constant temperature despite fluctuations weatheroWhen external temperature drops endotherms heat loss increasesoSuch as birds and mammalsSubzero TemperatureWhen battling subzero conditions ectotherms such as Eastern Forktail have fewer options than do endothermsThree main responses to freezing temperatureoAvoid them by moving to warmer region migrationoStay behind and become inactive shutting down cellular metabolic activity and entering suspended animationlike state dormancyoRemain active and stay aliveadaptMammals develop thicker coats for winterRetaining body heatA halfinch of feathers on a Blackcapped Chickadee can result in a difference of nearly 50C between birds skin and out surface of feathersMammals produce adipose tissue stored deep in body mainly around heart and other vital organsoBirds and mammals store subcutaneous fatMammals use fat for insulationBirds burn fat as fuel to power their muscles 1Page
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