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BIOL 1902 (6)
John Hale (1)

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BIOL 1902
John Hale

LECTURE 1Natural History is the enjoyment of NATUREliving breathing dynamic plants and animals the REAL WORLDit is the only and longest running reality show the enjoyment or OBSERVATION of living plants and animalsFLORA AND FAUNAand their interactions It is an OBSERVATIONAL SCIENCESomeone with an interest in Natural History is a NATURALIST someone who enjoys natureabout plants DICTIONARY definition dealing with the properties of natural objects plants or animals a scientific account of any subject on similar linesOne phrase that unifies all naturalists What the heck is thisNaturalist One who makes a special study of animals or plants a less precise term than zoologist biologist etc Five Major Challenges Plants and Animals face1Staying AliveDefenses AnimalsoAppearancesCamouflageconcealment a method of cryptic hiding which allows an otherwise visible organism or objct to remain unnoticed by blending with its enviorment Forms of camouflage ex moth and trees stink bug and leafoTypes of Camouflage1 Background Matching body has the same form of patterns as the environment around them Grey Tree Frog changes its colour depending on its background In the winter they are able to survive while half of its body turns to water and freezesSnowshoe Hare seasonally changes its colours to match their environment brown in summer white in winter Every habitat has general patterns Grasslands fields meadows have vertical lines2 Disruptive Patterns Patterns that break up the general form of an animal making it hard to see EXAMPLES Eye lines and eye stripes of songbirds especially important when sitting on nestsCanada Goose chin straps to conceal themselvesKilldeer Breast bands onHorned LarksLoons Necklace on neckEastern ChipmunksStrips and lines on back and faceLeopard frogsbrown and green spots and stripes that go across the entire animal to make the patters work well When frogs legs are folded in there are dark bands that continue and join together which is called Coincident Disruptive Patterns different parts of the body combing together to make one pattern Shapes having your body in the form of their environment EXAMPLE Masquerade mimicry organism resembles inedible and generally inanimate objectsAngleWinged Butterfly uses its shape to mimic a dead leaf Morning CloakEaster Comma are other examplesWalking stick Inchworm becomes a living twig Example of a twig mimicTreehopper often have little thorns or spine like parts sticking out of their body and normally stay very still on plants while they suck out juices from the plant This is a thorn mimic Luna moths silky moths hide up high in trees in daytime to blend in as live leaf mimicSpittlebug looks like foam sucking insects that suck in the juices of plants then creates a foam like substance to hide inGiant Swallowtail Moth most caterpillars have a mate finish to the body however this on has a shiny finish which makes it a bird dropping mimic In muddy area butterflies or moths use puddling to get nutrients Some moths are known to hear the sound waves in the air Behaviors they display is unusual as they are all grouped together Their patterns of disruption combined mimic an image of a snakeAnimals living in ponds and lakes often use colour patterns for a different type of camouflage Body ArmourMillipede Snails Beatles Turtles use their hard outer shells to protect them from predators painted turtle paint turtle Blanding turtlecan partly close its shellEastern tent caterpillars some animals can use a soft structure as a defence as well these caterpillars form silk webs around leaves and feed inside of themGypsy Moth CaterpillarsTussock Moth Caterpillar use their hair as a defence against birds trying to eat them When they are under attack they roll into ballsWoolly Aphids Bear has stiffer spines to protect them
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