PART 1 UNDERSTANDING YOURSELF AND OTHER PEOPLE AT WORK
Chapter 5 Individual and Organizational Motivation
A. Explain and to apply the basic theories of motivation.
Motivation refers to the psychological forces that determine the direction of people's behavior, their level of
effort, and level of persistence.
Motivation is not something that is "done" to other people. It is an internal state that directs individuals toward
McClelland's theory of motivation focuses on three needs that are learned from one's culture and family:
affiliation, achievement, and power. Almost everyone has these needs in varying degrees. Job performance is
affected by people's motive patterns as well as by the values that individuals hold.
There are two faces, positive and negative, to nPower (socialized and personalized) and nAffiliation (interest
According to McClelland, high achievers:
a. Like to set their own goals.
b. Tend to avoid either extremely difficult or extremely easy goals.
c. Prefer tasks that provide immediate feedback on their performance.
According to research on goal setting, higher performance results when goals are specific, difficult (but accepted
by employees), and when employees receive feedback on their progress. Publicly stated goals are more likely
to be accomplished than private ones.
B. Explain how managers and organizations can foster and reward employee motivation.
The manager's job is to understand and channel the motivation employees already possess and direct it toward
tasks that further the organization's objectives.
Managers can create an environment that fosters motivation by setting clear performance standards and ensuring
there are fits between employee needs and jobs and between employee needs and rewards, and by ensuring
that good performance is rewarded fairly.
C. Identify the characteristics of enriched, motivating jobs.
The sources of motivation are either intrinsic (e.g., the work itself) or extrinsic (e.g., external consequences like
material or social rewards, avoidance of punishment).
Individuals are motivated by different needs, such as Maslow's physiological, security, affiliation, selfesteem,
and self actualization needs.
Jobs that are motivating have the following characteristics:
a. Skill variety
b. Task identity
c. Task significance
e. Job feedback
D. Describe five methods of job redesign.
Job redesign efforts have been found to improve both satisfaction and productivity in some cases. However, job
enrichment programs are also contingent on the individual worker's knowledge and skill; need for growth, self
development, and challenge; and satisfaction with contextual factors.
Methods of job redesign and motivating employees are:
a. Job rotationswitching different jobs.
b. Job enlargementhorizontal job loading, which combines related tasks.
c. Job enrichmentvertical job loading, which increases job scope by including planning and control
functions formerly held by supervisors. It also includes client contact and direct output feedback.
d. Sociotechnical systemsintegration of the needs of both people and technology. The basic work unit is
usually the group rather than the individual. Autonomous work teams are an example. e. Selfmanaged work teams decide how they will accomplish the goals for which they are responsible
and allocate the necessary tasks. They are responsible for planning, scheduling, organizing, directing,
controlling, and evaluating their own work process, which is usually an entire process or product.
E. Understand what demotivates employees.
Equity theory maintains that employee motivation is affected by the perceived fairness of what people contribute
Expectancy theory assumes that motivation is a function of three linkages:
(1) the effort/performance expectation that if a person makes an effort, it will result in good performance,
(2) the performanceoutcome expectation that good performance will result in a particular outcome or
(3) the valence (value) of the reward to the person.
According to reinforcement theory, people learn to use behaviors that are rewarded and to suppress behavior
that does not lead to desired consequences. Positive reinforcement, punishment or discipline, and extinction are
used to shape employee behavior.
While money is a highly valued reward for some people, other rewards are more important to other employees.
For example, Herzberg identified these intrinsic factors as motivators: the work itself, achievement, challenge,
responsibility, advancement, growth, and recognition.
Vignette: A Winning Recipe
A WINNING RECIPE
taking extraordinary steps to help employees makes good business sense.
create a trust between the company and the people.
onsite education functions (typical classroom setting, paid instructors) is free to all employees and offered at
various times. Classes provide a twofold function:
helping employees function in the daytoday world.
giving employees necessary professional tools to climb the company ladder.
company created a housing program helps employees learn the process of buying a home.
eight times per month company vice presidents greet employees and listen to their concerns.
HOW TO CHANGE YOUR BOSS
behavior modification the power to change (modify) the way your boss behaves.
utilize five steps of positive reinforcement:
1. Understand the purposes of positive reinforcement.
utilize positive reinforcement to change an undesirable behavior to a desirable behavior. Once
the boss begins exhibiting the desired behavior, then positive reinforcement is utilized to maintain
2. State the undesired behavior.
This is accomplished by specifically stating the undesired behavior that you want your boss to
3. State the desired behavior.
These become your goals. When your boss demonstrates this behavior, you'll know that you
4. Create an opportunity for the desired behavior.
Either create an opportunity where your boss will show the desired behavior, or wait for it to
occur naturally and then reinforce it.
5. Give verbal praise.
When the desired behavior is shown, give positive reinforcementgive it immediately after the
desired behavior is showngive it every time the desired behavior is shown in order to change the
behavior and have it become second nature.
KEY FACTORS THAT AFFECT PRODUCTIVITY motivation (defined) the psychological forces that determine the direction of people's behavior, their level
of effort, and level of persistence.
incorrect notions about motivation
1. there are unmotivated employees.
Every human being is motivated. Some people are more energetic than others, the most
important factor to consider is how this energy is directed. The primary task for managing
motivation, is channeling and directing human energy toward the activities, tasks, and objectives
that further the organization's mission.
2. that managers "motivate" workers and that motivation is something you do to someone else.
Motivation is an internal state that directs individuals toward certain goals and objectives.
Managers cannot directly influence this internal state; they can only create expectations for
employees that their motives will be satisfied by doing the organization's work and provide
rewards that satisfy employee needs.
sources of motivation are both intrinsic and extrinsic.
1. intrinsic behavior is performed for its own sake. The work itself is pleasurble, and we see examples
of this in people who love the work they do.
2. extrinsic behavior is performed because of the consequences it bringsmaterial or social rewards or
even the avoidance of punishment. When a person does not seem to enjoy influencing and leading others,
this is a cue their interest managerial positions may come from extrinsic sources.
Performance = Ability x Motivation.
the most reliable predictor of job performance and career success is cognitive ability. This means that
intelligence should be a major criterion when we select job candidates.
determining candidates' motivation level is also crucial. Conscientiousness, a stable personality trait, is
sometimes used to operationalize motivation.
other factors may also contribute to career successfor example, emotional intelligence.
to solve performance problems, we have to be able to discern whether we are dealing with a deficiency in
ability or motivation or demotivators in the organization.
understanding human motivation is crucial because it explains why people behave as they do. Knowledge
about motivation has increased substantially. Simplistic theories arguing motivated by
money or motivatd for social gratification have been replaced with more complex theories.
no single theory is adequate to explain human motivation.
four areas involving employee motivation.
1. the personjobreward fit,
2. job design,
3. the role of the leader, and
4. the role of organizational policies and rewards.
THE PERSONJOBREWARD FIT
Content theories focus on the specific internal needs that motivate people.
content theories include Maslow's hierarchy of needs and McClelland's need theory.
identified the following needs.
basic needs like food, water, and shelter that are necessary for survival.
organizations satisfy this need by providing salaries and wages so employees can live
the need for security, stability, and protection from physical or emotional harm.
organizations satisfy this need by providing pension and health care plans, career paths
within the organization, and a safe work environment.
Social belonging needs
need for social interaction, friendship, affection, and love.
organizations can fulfill this need by permitting interaction with colleagues, work team structures, social and sports facilities, and parties.
the need to feel good about oneself and to be respected, appreciated, and recognized by
organizations can satisfy this need by providing feedback and recognition for high
performance and accomplishments and promoting them.
the need people have to realize their full potential.
organizations fulfill this need when they allow employees to use their skills and talents fully
Maslow's theory is typically called the "Hierarchy of Needs" because it stated that the needs are
arranged in a hierarchy.
lower order needs must be satisfied before higher level needs can be addressed.
reasearch on the theory has failed to suppport the existence of a need hierarchy, Maslow's theory can
be useful in helping managers understand different types of human needs.
Not everyone has the same needs, nor are these needs given equal importance in different cultures.
McClelland's Need Theory
used the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), which asks subjects to write stories in response to
identified three motivators or needs.
1. need for affiliation.
2. need for power.
3. need for achievement.
these motives are learned from our parents and culture.
need for power (nPower) (defined) the need to influence and lead others and be in control of one's
two faces of the power need.
influence used for the good of others. People driven by a need for socialized power seek a
management position or politi