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Chapter 5

Chapter 5

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BUSI 2101
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Chapter 5 Individual and Organizational Motivation • Steps of positive reinforcement: 1. Understand purposes of positive reinforcement 2. State undesired behaviour 3. State desired behaviour 4. Create opportunity 4 desired behaviour 5. Give verbal praise 1. State desired behaviour 2. Tell him how it makes you feel 3. Give verbal praise (saying thank you) The Knowledge Base • Key factors affecting productivity  motivation: psychological forces determining direction of behaviour, effort and persistence • Effective way managing motivation is understanding • Sources of motivation are 1. Intrinsic: performed for its own sake, common in people who love their work 2. Extrinsic: performed because of consequences it brings • Performance =Ability X Motivation • Most reliable predictor of job performance and career success  cognitive ability (intelligence) • Why an individual doesn’t appear to be motivated 2 do their job, look at 4 areas: 1. The person-job-reward fit 2. Job design 3. Role of the leader 4. Role of organizational policies and rewards The Person-Job-Reward Fit • Key step in understanding motivation problems  identify factors unique 2 individual that energize, direct, sustain and stop behaviour • Content Theories: focus on specific internal needs that motivate people Chapter 5 Individual and Organizational Motivation o Includes Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and McClelland’s need theory Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physiological needs  basic needs like food, water, shelter. Necessary for survival. Organizations provide salaries so employees can live adequately. • Security needs  need for security, stability, protection from physical or emotional harm. Organizations provide pension, health care plans, career paths within organization, safe work environment. • Social belonging needs  reflect human need for social interaction, friendship, affection and love. Organizations permit interaction with colleagues, work team structures, social and sports facilities, parties. • Self esteem  need to feel good about oneself and be respected, appreciated and recognized by others. Organizations provide feedback and recognition for high performance/accomplishments, seek and respect employee input, make employees visible 2 others, promotions. • Self-actualization  need people have 2 realize their full potential. “Be all that you can be”. Organizations allow employees 2 use their skills and talents fully at work. Ie. Entrepreneur left large organization 2 work 4 themselves 2 use more of their own talents • Needs are arranged in a hierarchy, lower order needs must be satisfied before higher level needs can be addressed • Needs differ between cultures McClellan’s Need Theory • 3 human motives: o Need for affiliation o Need for power o Need for achievement • These motives learned from our parents and culture • Need for Power (n-Power): need 2 influence and lead others and be in control of one’s environment • Positive face of power need  socialized power: influence used for the good of others • Negative face of power need  personalized power: unsocialized concern for personal dominance o Less inhibition or self control, exercise power impulsively, more rude, drank to excess, “scoring”, dictators Chapter 5 Individual and Organizational Motivation • Need for Affiliation: desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships o Prefer cooperative situations, seek relationships with high degree of mutual understanding • Positive face of affiliation need  affiliative interest: concern for interpersonal relationships but not at expense of goal-oriented behaviour o Value good relationships and work at maintaining them, will make tough decisions or
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