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Chapter 10

Chapter 10

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Carleton University
BUSI 2101

OB Chapter 10 Group Dynamics & Work Teams Creating Hot Teams • Hot teams  engaging work, people look forward 2 tomorrow, everyone gets more done, trust their leaders therefore adapt quickly 2 new directions, improvise solutions on the spot • Not every management/company project requires a hot team • Hot teams vital when big objectives have high level of “task interdependency” • Task Interdependency: measures how much actions influence success of another’s & the teams overall results • People do their jobs heads down, little concern about effect of their decisions/behaviour on others & group can still achieve its big objective – task interdependency is low & hot teams not crucial • Individuals willingness 2 look beyond self interest & communicate, cooperate & coordinate w/ others can make or break teams success – task interdependency is high & hot teams critical • Poor relationships – team members rigid, insensitive, self-centered • Good relationships – team members empathetic, flexible, generous (if there’s a rift, a hot team will resolve it quickly) APrototype for Creating Hot Teams • Don’ts of hot teams: o Don’t let your group become rule-bound o Don’t be mean Don’t Let Your Group Become Rule-Bound • Taking process too far results in rule-bound o Ex. Company enforced “no arms with chairs rule”. Pregnant woman needed chair with arms. Coworkers took one from empty desk and manager put it back at night x2 then put memo “admins don’t get chairs with arms” • Do’s for hot teams: o Like your people o Listen to them o Make work engaging o Let them decide Like Your People OB Chapter 10 Group Dynamics & Work Teams • Ex. Guy hired creative people (artists, musicians, etc) instead of communications & finance majors, and got a creative new view on the projects that he never would have gotten before Listen to Them • Ex. Guy listens to employees on a one-on-one every week, encouraging them to believe in themselves, saying “you can do it” • Listening increases trust, makes expectations clearer, relaxes barriers between people, increases self esteem Make Work Engaging • Ex. Create roles for everybody on the team 2 increase their sense of being “chosen:”, look around 2 get a sense of different roles people play • Roles let people feel special • Roles let you use people 4 their strengths while avoiding their weaknesses Let Them Decide • Let people define their own work pace their own way Hot Teams – Impractical or Practical? • Hot teams are built so that people’s psychological & physical needs are met The Knowledge Base • hot teams make decisions faster & more accurately, can handle larger tasks than individuals • however, teams can result in increased costs, slower decision making, decreased accuracy & hurt feelings & damaged relationships if not managed properly What is Team Effectiveness? 1. Output: output of team meets/exceeds standards of quantity, quality, timeliness of team’s clients 2. Social Processes: social processes team uses in carrying out the work, enhance members capability of working together interdependently in the future 3. Learning: group experience contributes positively 2 learning & personal well being of individual team members Deciding When to Use a Team • Tasks uncertain, complex, large or require inputs from multiple sources, groups effective way 2 accomplish tasks • In order 2 succeed, teams require common purpose & specific goal OB Chapter 10 Group Dynamics & Work Teams • Ensure teams have a sense of group efficacy: a feeling that the team has capability 2 successfully accomplish its taskAND HAVEASHARED mental model: members’shared, organized understanding and mental representation of task-related and team-related knowledge • Shared mental models contribute 2 team performance & effectiveness when team task requires interdependence Managing the Team Context • Teams embedded in organizational context – needs 2 be actively designed & managed 2 ensure optimal team performance • External activities teams should undertake: Role Activity Ambassador Manage upward relationships; market the team; lobby for resources; manage the team reputation Scout Gather info in organization, manage lateral and downward searches Task Coordinator Manage lateral connections among functions with other organizational units; coordinate deadlines & nudge other units 2 fulfill commitments; get feedback on how team is meeting expectations Managing Team Members • Team Skills o Team members must have mix of necessary technical, social and team management skills 2 accomplish their tasks o Team members should be proficient in:  Collaborative Problem Solving: ability 2 structure team interaction 2 achieve appropriate amount of participation  Conflict Resolution: skill in handling conflict about ideas and reducing emotional conflict  Communication: ability 2 enhance open communication & use active listening techniques  Goal Setting & Performance Management: skills in establishing goals and monitoring & coaching performance OB Chapter 10 Group Dynamics & Work Teams  Planning & Coordination: skill in coordinating tasks, establishing roles, balancing work loads across members • Motivation o Social Loafing: contributing less effort 2 group projects than when you work alone  Can be reduced by making sure each team member’s contribution is identifiable; designing tasks so they are involving, attractive, engaging so members become motivated 2 perform their tasks; assigning responsibility and making that responsibility public  When teams set their own goals, less likely 2 experience social loafing  Teams with social identity: perception of members as a “group” rather than set of unique individuals HAVE LESS SOCIAL LOAFING • Composition and Diversity o Heterogeneous groups with reasonable mix of task and interpersonal skills perform more effectively than more homogeneous groups • Managing the Team Process and Task o Groups are not static – as they change and evolve over time, key issues and concerns of members also change Group Development • Group’s developmental age affects behaviour • Model of group development: o Forming: members focus on accepting each other & learning more about the group and its purpose. Period of uncertainty, self-consciousness and superficiality. Effective group leaders help orient members, clarify purpose of group and work on establishing trusting relationships. By end of stage, members feel like they belong to the group o Storming: members determine how much individuality they must relinquish to belong 2 the group and who will control the group. Period of tension, criticism, and confrontation. Group becomes polarized, subdivides into cliques & challenges the leader and others. Effective leadership involves helping group focus on a common vision, modeling constructive conflict management, legitimizing expressions of individuality that do not hinder productivity. Skilled leaders ensure group is safe place for all members, reassure members that storming is a normal stage in a group’s development o Norming: members develop shared expectations about group roles & norms. Stage is characterized by collaboration, commitment, increased cohesion & identification w/ the group. Effective leaders continue 2 help set norms, provide positive feedback on group’s progress and prevent groupthink. Groupthink: members of highly cohesive group face threat 2 seek consensus so strongly they fail 2 explore alternative courses of action OB Chapter 10 Group Dynamics & Work Teams o Performing: group focuses energy on achieving goals & being productive. Increased cohesion, acceptance of individual differences and mutual support. Skilled leaders help group run itself, encourage development of group traditions, encourage group 2 evaluate its effectiveness o Adjourning: temporary groups break up and focus less on performance, more on closure. Members struggle with holding on (nostalgia) and letting go (looking ahead 2 the future). Effective leaders encourage the group to reflect on, learn from, and celebrate its achievements • Punctuated Equilibrium Model (p. 257) o Productivity of some groups can be described as periods of inertia (tendency 2 do nothing) or equilibrium; punctuated by transitional period of radical change that occurs at midpoint of group’s calendar life 1. In first meeting, group sets its direction, does not re-examine it until transition 2. Phase 1, period of inertia and equilibrium 3. When group used up half its allotted time, transition occurs: burst of activit
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