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Chapter 2

IS Chapter 2

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BUSI 2400
Robert Riordan

Chapter 2 Technology Essentials o IT allows you to communicate with others, enables transactions between you and organizations you deal with, helps you to obtain, organize, analyze & store data and information, and provides entertainment The Components of IT o All IT are limited to these capabilities 1. Accepting & storing info 2. Performing math calculations 3. Applying logic to make decisions 4. Retrieving, displaying, and sending info 5. Consistently repeating above actions many times o IT consists of: 1. Hardware: electronic and mechanical components you can see and touch 2. Software: set of instructions that direct the hardware 3. Network: increases their power by allowing users to share resources (like hardware, software and info) • These 3 categories (hardware, software and network) create a IT platform Hardware • Hard (physical) parts of a system • Working parts consist of electronic devices Processing Hardware • Directs execution of instructions and transformation of data using transistors • Transistor: electronic switch can be on (1) or off (0) • Microprocessor: tiny chip made up of transistors • Central Processing Unit (CPU): microprocessor contains most of the components that make up the CPU • Clockspeed is measured in megahertz (MHz) and gigahertz (GHz) • Higher clock speed, faster performance • Computer Hierarchy: categorizes processors according to their power Chapter 2 Technology Essentials o COMPUTER HIERARCHY: 1. Supercomputer: [largest & fastest relative processing power] performs processor intensive computations using parallel processing 2. Mainframe: [large] carries out many of organizational processing needs using high-speed processing chips and large amounts of memory 3. Server Farms: [medium/many] allows multiple servers to handle network processing activities 4. Personal Computer (PC): [small to medium] enables users to carry out processing tasks needed 2 perform their job; usually networked together 5. Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)/Tablets/Smartphones: [very small] provides users with portable computing power, uses specially designed applications, provides ability 2 connect 2 Internet and email 6. Embedded Processors: [extremely small] provides low-scale processing and/or identification; embedded in appliances and products • Processing power often corresponds to computers physical size • Embedded processors may provide greatest value to businesses • Embedded Processors: programmable chips built into products to make them “smart”. Ie. Digital Signal Processors (DSPs)  special microprocessors includes more math- related functions than the typical processor, can process signals in real time • Grid Computing: combines processing power of several computers by networking them together. Each member in grid is a node. Each node contributes to power of the grid. Power of entire grid can be used to solve complex problems Memory • Temporarily locates data and instructions before processing • Long-term helps you keep track of facts or processes • Short-term for items you need to remember for a relatively short time • Computers have long-term (ROM) and short-term (RAM) stored on chips • Memory capacity is measured as number of bytes • Read Only Memory (ROM): contains instructions and data only special devices can alter • Random Access Memory (RAM): stores data only until no longer needed or computer is shut down, CPU can access any item stored in RAM directly (randomly) Chapter 2 Technology Essentials • Increasing RAM capacity, cheapest and most effective ways of extending the life of your computer Input Hardware • Provides interface used for data entry into a device • Ie. Keyboards, pointing devices, scanners, digital cameras Output Hardware • Provides interface used to retrieve information from a device • Output Devices: convert IT-processed info into a usable form • Choosing output device, business professionals concerned with quality and speed of output • Most common output device category  display devices ie. Computer monitors Storage Hardware • Stores data, info, and instructions 4 the long term • Ie. The computer hardware, CDs, DVDs, USB flash memory, external hard drives • Storing data in the cloud allows you to access your data from anywhere @ any time Communications Hardware • connects one IT device to another • communications hardware (ie. Network Interface Card (NIC)) provides physical connection b/w computer and a local network • when not physically connected to a network, use a modem • Modem: wired and wireless, allows you 2 connect 2 a remote network over a telecommunications line. It converts (modulates) digital signals going out from computer into an analog signal appropriate 4 connection medium used. When receiving a signal, it converts (demodulates) the analog signal back into a digital signal your computer can recognize • modem speeds (measured in bits per second (bps)) significantly affects knowledge work activities • DSL models offer higher transmission speeds • IT has increased knowledge work effectiveness by allowing mobile devices to connect 2 wireless networks by using wireless NICs Chapter 2 Technology Essentials Software • Think of software as information that specifies how a hardware device should work with other data, info and knowledge • Computer performs functions based on instructions (software) • When you turn on computer, firmware built into ROM chips allows the computer to boot up • Once compute ready, CPU loads more software into RAM System Software • Includes any software required to control hardware components and support execution of application software • Includes operating system and utility software • Operating System (OS) Software: coordinates and handles details of working with computer hardware o OS performs 2 main tasks: 1. Manage hardware & software resources of computer 2. Provide stable and consistent interface between application programs and hardware • OS software has most impact on your experience, efficiency and productivity when using a computer • Utility Software: provides additional tools you can use to maintain & service your system. Ie. Firewall application Application Software • Is a complete, self-contained program or set of programs 4 performing a specific job. Ie. Microsoft word to write a paper • Business professionals use productivity software 2 work more efficiently and effectively with data, info, and knowledge • Database Management System (DBMS) • Personal Information Management (PIM) • Customer Relationship Management (CRM): helps organizations manage customer data and interactions Chapter 2 Technology Essentials Middleware • Software more common in enterprises • Purpose is to link applications that use dissimilar software or hardware platforms and act like a specialized messenger/translator 2 manage exchange of info • Essential when organization is implementing new types of software that need 2 communicate with existing systems Open Source Software • Software that can be used, modified, improved, and redistributed • Open-source programs often free or very low cost • Popular choice for e-commerce applications b/c low cost, flexible uses, decreasing reliance on a single software vendor Connecting Over Networks • Fastest growing network: the Internet • Computer network consist of network nodes that represent computer hardware and network users with various types of hardware, software, and communications media forming the links between nodes o Computer network requires 4 primary components: 1. Data (the resource) that computers share on the network 2. Special hardware 3. Software that allows computers 2 communicate and share the data 4. Communication media 2 link the computers together • Computer networks, main technology supporting communication • Provides platform for collaboration, allowing users to share data, info and knowledge Network Categories • 2 extreme sizes: o LocalArea Network (LAN) o WideArea Network (WAN) • Technology requirements more complicated as physical size of network gets larger Chapter 2 Technology Essentials o COMPUTER NETWORKS: 1. PrivateArea Network (PAN): private, covers small space. Communication among computer devices in close proximity 2. LocalArea Network (LAN): private, within immediate location or building. Share files, resources, servers, and other hardware among members of organization 3. MetropolitanArea Network (MAN): private/public, ranges in size. provides data and voice transmission at high speeds 4. WideArea Network (WAN): private/public, over large geographic area. Share data, info and resources among units of an organization distant from 1 another 5. Internet: public, worldwide. Share data and info with all stakeholders in organization and with general public Network Hardware o THREE CATEGORIES OF NETWORK HARDWARE: 1. Hardware to connect a device to a network: modems, cable modems, Network Interface Cards (NICs), wireless cards. Device you use depends mainly on media that connects to your computer. Carrier or Communications Medium: physical link that forms a network connection. Most common for transmitting electrical signals  Plain Old Telephone System (POTS). Coaxial and fibre optic cables can transmit info at faster speeds. 2. Specialized hardware for handling network traffic: routers, bridges, repeaters, hubs. Bridge: lets you connect to networks of break large network into 2 smaller, more efficient networks. Router: connects, translates, then directs data that cross between 2 networks. Hub (Concentrator): serves as central connection point for cables from devices on the network. Repeater: used to strengthen or amplify signals that are sent along a long transmission route. Wireless Access Point (AP): special brid
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