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CHEM 1004 (13)
Chapter 4

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CHEM 1004
Gerald Buchanan

CHEM 1004- September 16  mL and cm3 are the same (last weeks notes) death from water- 4 liters in 2 hours - died from electrolyte imbalance Therapeutic Index- larger the value, safer the drug - many accidental deaths at Sick Kids in 70’s due to this o Marijauna-1000 o Alcohol- 10 Routes of Administration - Oral, inhalation, injection, body orifices, skin application, implantable drug delivery systems, microsponges Orally - Expected to disintegrate in stomach and enter bloodstream by absorption from stomach to small intestine - Some drugs must be taken with food to avoid irritating stomach lining - Some drugs are destroyed by stomach juices and must be injected Inhaled - Rapidly absorbed due to large number of blood vessels in lungs and nasal region Injection (parenteral) - Into muscle, veins, beneath skin - Rapid access to bloodstream - Contamination of needles  Powder injections o Painless o Small quantities Bodily Orifices - Eye, ear, nose drops - Sublingual tablets - Rectal suppositories - Beneath teeth and cheek: tobacco Skin applications - Sprays, creams Transdermal skin patches - Slow absorption into blood stream from patch - Nicotine patches - Thigh, butt, upper arm, back Implantable Drugs - Pellets, reservoirs or pumps - Insulin, morphine - Slow release Microsponges - High porosity permits large surface area to be filled with drug Fake drugs are common in Latin America - Often contain active ingredient and have non-standard weights - Developed world  Refer to Viagra patent issue with Pfizer Tablet Treatments - Some foil wrapped to keep moisture out - Contain binders to hold active ingredient together: gelatine to aid swallowing - Enteric
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