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CHEM 1004 (13)
Chapter 17

Chapter 17

2 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1004
Professor
Gerald Buchanan

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Chapter 17 - Drugs in Sports Drugs Banned by World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) 1. Narcotics: morphine, codeine 2. Stimulants: amphetamines, pseudoephedrine, caffeine in excess 3. Beta -2 Agonists (Beta Blockers): Propranolol (Indural) enhance breathing without increasing heart rate 4. Diuretics and Masking Agents: Furosemide increase elimination and ‘hide drugs’ 5. Anabolic Steroids: Stanozolol and many others, testosterone in excess. Increase muscle mass 6. Hormones and Anabolic Proteins: Increase muscle mass and oxygen intake 7. Anti-Estrogenic Drugs: Tamoxifen: Increase levels of male hormones 8. Gluco-Corticosteroids: Increase stress endurance ● Masking Agents - React with the chemical species to be analyzed to change its properties and thus make it harder to detect. As with diuretics, they dilute the urine and produce lower levels of the banned substance, making it harder to detect ● Anabolic Steroids - All structurally related to testosterone . Promote rapid muscle growth and stamina ○ Anabolism means building up ● Detection: ○ Detection: Mass Spectrometry of Drug metabolites in urine ○ Each compound has a unique “pattern” ● Androgens - Male Sex Hormones ● Testosterone - An anabolic (muscle enhancing) steroid ● Epi-testosterone - is a stereoisomer, differing only in the chiral centre in the D-ring, but it has no anabolic effects ● If T is administered, the excretion rate of urinary T increases and that of E decreases ● When measuring the T/E ratio in urine the average for a man is 1 and rarely exceeds 4 ● Some tried adding additional epitestosterone to balance out the ratio ● Kinetic Isotope effect is more accurate ○ Synthetically derived T has a slightly lower amount ofC isotope than does T produced in the body ○ Mass spectrometry (detects isotopic abundances) used to measure the 12C to 13C ratio in testosterone ● Side Effects of Excess Testosterone Or Other Anabolics: ○ In men: 1. testicular atrophy (if external testosterone is taken, testes do not need to make it), High cholesterol, high blood pressure 4. heart attack risks, impotence ○ In women: course skin, decreased breast size, menstrual problems, loss of body curves etc. ● Hormones and Anabolic Proteins - Hormones act as “messengers” in our body (ie intrabody communication). Human growth hormone (hGH) and EPO (erythropoietin). Injection of hGH done by athletes in the hope of building more competitive bodies ● Intrabody Communication - Two major lines of chemical communication between our external and intern
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