Textbook Notes (362,858)
Canada (158,079)
Chemistry (31)
CHEM 1004 (13)
Chapter 1


4 Pages
Unlock Document

Carleton University
CHEM 1004
Gerald Buchanan

Chapter 1 1.2 What is a Drug? Street Drugs - Suggests narcotics uppers, downers PCP, hallucinogens and cocaine. Many equate street drugs with “dope” regardless of the pharmacology of the street drugs (dope originally meant opium and it's narcotic alkaloids, morphine an codeine). Pharmacology – The study of the distribution, actions, and fate of drugs in the body Physicians use drugs to: – Fight Infection (Antibiotics, sulfa drugs, antiseptics) – Reverse a disease process (heart stimulants, antidepressants) – Relieve Symptoms (morphine, aspirin, antacids, steroids) – Restore normal function (Insulin, iron, hormones) – Aid in diagnosis (radiopharmaceuticals, skin tests, urine tests, barium enemas) – Inhibit normal body process (oral contraceptives, anesthetics) – Maintain health (vitamins, minerals, vaccines) If our body responds in some way to a substance, either physically, biochemically, or mentally, that substance can be said to have a drug effect. Adrug is any absorbed or applied substance that changes or enhances any physical or physiological function in the body. This definition if accepted means almost anything can act as a drug. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates any substance other than food as a drug. Pills are obvious examples are obvious examples of drugs. Less obvious cases include dextrose in candy bar because it alters our insulin production. Vegetables like Brussels sprouts and cabbage can cause a drug effect because they inhibit normal thyroid production. Even arsenic (poison in large dose) can be used for treatment of promyelocytic leukemia. Just about everything has potential of being a drug. Whether a substance is a drug or not may depend on the patient, the dose given, environmental circumstances, the illness, prior treatment, and the desired effect. Problem 1.1: Is water a drug? Is salt a drug? In what situations may they be considered drugs? In what situation might aspirin not be considered a drug? Both water and salt can be considered drugs. Even though both aren't commonly associated with the word drug, they can effect are body (cause a drug effect). Water when drank can aid in digestion and speed up metabolism; since this is a change in how the body works water could be classified as a drug in this case. Same as salt, when a person eats to much salt this can cause their blood pressure to rise. However a substance commonly associated as being a drug such as aspirin in some circumstances might not be considered a drug. If not a strong enough dose of aspirin is given, there is no effect on the human body so it is therefore not classified as a drug in this case. 1.3 The Placebo effect Placebo Effect – People can experience typical drug effects when they believe they have taken a drug when they have not. Because the patient believes they are taking a genuine drug, the patient expects a positive response and often receives that positive response. – Placebos are intentionally used. Doctors use them when they have a patient who is on a drug that they feel they can't live without. The doctor can get the patients pharmacist to give them placebos that look the exact same. The patient is placated because they go their drugs but they don't get the side effects. Manufactures also use placebos when testing new drugs. They give 1/2 their test subjects placebos and half real drugs. This way they can tell how much of the response is due to the drug and how much is due to the expectation. – Placebos can even induce typical drug side effects. – The placebo effect shows that the human organism has a great capacity for self healing. Certain white blood cells are known to have receptors that are sensitive to neurotransmitters Holistic Medicine – Is an understanding of a patients whole system. The patient's emotional, spiritual, social, lifestyle, and environmental factors are considered in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Most approaches of holism rely heavily on psychology. Acupuncture treatment works similarly to how placebo works. Complementary andAlternative Medicine (CAM) is categorized into: – Homeopathy – Diseases are treated using drugs that when tiny doses are given to a healthy person causes symptoms of the disease but cure similar symptoms of the sick – Biologically Based – herbal or nutritional regimens intended to prevent or treat illness – Naturopathy and folklore – Consider disease disruption of body's nature healing process and try to restore that health instead of cure disease (ex. Reiki) – Mind-body systems – meditation, hypnosis, past-life regression – Bioelectromagnetic – attempt to apply magnets, electric current or copper bracelets (ex. Qray) – Body Based systems such as chiropractic, acupuncture, aromatherapy, massage, psychic
More Less

Related notes for CHEM 1004

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.