Textbook Notes (369,137)
Canada (162,407)
Chemistry (34)
CHEM 1004 (13)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9

4 Pages
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Department
Chemistry
Course Code
CHEM 1004
Professor
Gerald Buchanan

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Chapter 9 - Alcohol ● ~25% of all persons admitted to general hospitals have alcohol problems or are undiagnosed alcoholics ● ~40% of all traffic fatalities are alcohol related ● Is the biggest drug problem ● University/college students drink more than those who don’t attend and spend more on alcohol then on drinks and books. ~7% of freshman dropouts are due to alcohol ● Heaviest use in 21-25 age group, higher % of men than women ● Use tapers off with age (tolerance for alcohol decreases with age, after 50) ● Racial Considerations: Asians often lack the enzyme required to metabolize alcohol(alcohol dehydrogenase) ● ~11% of Canadians have and alcohol or other drug abuse problem. Ontario, Quebec and PEI have lowest; West and Nova Scotia have highest; and New Brunswick and Newfoundland are average ● Aboriginals have highest alcohol abuse (1 to 5 aboriginals are admitted to hospital for alcohol related illness) ● Alcohol is the Oldest known Synthetic Compound: ○ Ethanol (Grain Alcohol) CH3-CH2-OH ○ Methanol (Wood Alcohol) CH -3H ○ Rubbing Alcohol (Isopropyl Alcohol) (C3 2 -CH-OH ● Denatured Alcohol - Alcohol with chemicals (1 or more) added to make it unfit to drink (toxic). Some denaturants: acetone, methanol, phenol, isopropyl alcohol. Not possible for untrained person to remove these. This prevents industrial alcohols from getting into beverages and escaping huge taxes ○ Level of Denaturants used: Up to 10% of methanol ● Ethanol (alcohol) - First synthetic chemical ~3700 BC. Egyptians made wine (fermented grapes), Sumerians made beer (fermented barley). o o ● Distillation - ‘Invented’ ~1500 AD. Separate ethanol (bp 78 ) and water (bp 100 ) to concentrate alcohol %. ● Ethanol - Chemistry ○ Fermentation of Glucose CH 3H O2 + CO 2 ○ The microorganisms are ‘inactivated’ at ~15% Ethanol (beer,wine). Anything stronger must be ‘fortified’ (sherry) or distilled (spirits) ○ From anything starch/sugar, eg. ■ barley(beer), grains(whiskies), com(bourbon), grapes(wine), potatoes(vodka), rice(saki), sugar cane(rum), raisins(arak/raki), artichokes(cinar) ● Bushmills in Northern Ireland is the World’s oldest licensed distillery ● Gin produced by distillation of Juniper berries with alcohol derived from fermented barley. Went from be medicine to cause mania in England because it was cheap and provided temporary relief from poverty, filth and hopeless of the environment. Crime increased ● Juniper berries as Medicine: ○ Folkloric history as a remedy for gout and urinary tract problems ○ Idea was to produce a diuretic from gin ○ Gin was composed of 100’s of compounds. One of these terpinen-4-ol reduces inflammation but, not enough in gin to have much effect ● Gout - Joint inflammation and swelling, caused by uric acid buildup in blood. Eventually crystals form and cause pain. Most prominent in drink a lot of alcohol and eat a fatty diet. Can be treated with colchicine (an alkaloid) ● Gin soaked raisins for treatment of arthritis ● Gin acts came out in 1736 and 1751 to control the use of Gin ● Pharmacology of Alcohol: ○ Alcohol is a CNS depressant ○ Releases inhibitions and thus (erroneously) gives the impression that it is a stimulant ○ Brain is particularly sensitive to depressive effects of alcohol ○ Strong blood alcohol concentration and behaviour ● Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Units: ○ Normally expressed as mg per deciliter (100ml) ○ Since the density of water is 1g/ml then: ■ 10mg per 100ml is 10mg per 100 grams so, .010g/100g = 0.1% ● Tolerance to Alcohol’s Effects: ○ Effects start at 0.01% ○ At 0.03% feelings of euphoria (happiness) ○ At 0.04% clumsiness ○ Above 0.05% some loss some loss of motor coordination ○ At 0.07% extreme clums
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