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ERTH 2415 (21)
Chapter 1

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Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415
Claire Samson

Chapter 1 A GlobalCanadian Outlook on Natural DisastersGreat Natural Disastertsunamis earthquakes hurricanes floods and heat wavesCause death and destruction around the worldKill thousands and leave thousands homelessdevastate regional economiesInternational assistance is required to rescue clean up and reconstruct thKashmir Pakistan Earthquake October 8 2005Deadliest disaster of 2005killed 88000 people and 33 million were left homelessLow quality building materials caused homes and public buildings to collapseCaused landslides running roads making relief difficultSudden temperature decrease caused more deathsfrozen to death due to no shelter thHurricane Katrina August 29 2005Costliest disaster of 2005 and in US historuCost 135 million180 kmh winds water pushed over 1km inland levees failed due to water pressue Natural Disasters and Natural HazardsEnergy capacity for performing workNatural disasters are extreme natural events in which a large amount of energy is released in a short time which catastrophic consequences for life and infrastructure in the vicinityOften triggered when a society ignores hazardous conditions in the natural environmentNatural Hazard a source of danger to life property and the environment from atmospheric and geological phenomena such as unstable snow and high waterNatural hazards become natural disasters when they intersect with vulnerable communitiesSnow avalanches for example are natural hazards but can be called natural disasters when it kills people or engulfs infrastructureNatural hazards are inevitable but natural disasters are not Frequency Return Period and MagnitudeUsed to describe hazard levelsFrequency number of occurrences in a given length of timeEarth experiences an average of 1 great earthquakeyearReturn period length of time between similar eventsFrequency and return period are inverse of one anotherFrequency1period Period1frequency The longer the return period the smaller the chance of an event occurring in a given yearMagnitude related to the amount of energy fuelling an eventAn expression of magnitude would be the force of hurricane winds Worldwide Trends The Number of Great Natural Disasters is Increasing with TimeDue to human population more than doubling in size since 1960Geological disasters earthquakes volcanoes and mass movementsWeather disasters droughts wildfires floods stormsChanging weather patterns related to global warmingGeological Disaster a natural disaster caused by the dynamic processes shaping the Earths surfaceEarthquake the shaking of the Earth by seismic waves radiating away from a disturbancefault movementMass Movement the largescale transfer of material downslope under the pull of gravityVolcano an opening of the Earths surface where magma has poured or blown forth typically creating hills of mountains
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