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ERTH 2415 (21)
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Chapter Summary 12.docx

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Department
Earth Sciences
Course
ERTH 2415
Professor
Claire Samson
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 12 HurricanesWe can have hurricanes in Canada and not just the East Coast ie Hurricane Hazel which happened in Toronto and took the lives of 81 peopleHurricane Katrina New Orleans 2005Reached category 5 the most destructive levelWind speeds reaching 280 kmhMost of New Orleans lays below sea levelMandatory evacuation was ordered for 12 million residents Flooded lowlaying areas made up 80 of New OrleansCostliest natural disaster in US historyHurricane Hazel Southern Ontario 1954Born offshore West Africa and travelled across Atlantic unnoticedHazel I joined another storm Hazel II and headed toward Toronto81 people died in TorontoHurricanesHurricanes are large tropical cyclonesThey are heat engines that convert the heat energy of the tropical ocean into winds and wavesCan generate winds over 240 kmhCan push massive volumes of seawater onshore as surges that temporarily raise sea level over 6 m Heavy rains can cause dangerous floodsCan go by different names Indian Oceantropical cyclones Pacific OceantyphoonsNamed after Hurakan one of the creator gods of the Mayans later introduced in the Carib mythology as Hurricane the god of evilnow given human names ie Andrew Hugo Katrina Rita etcNames attached to extreme events are retired there will never be a hurricane Katrina or Juan again the names of hurricanes are recycled every 6 yearsLife Cycle of a HurricaneBirth o Storm of the tropics o Heat builds up during long hot summers and hurricanes are one means of exporting excess tropical heat to the midlatitudeso Several requirements must be met before a hurricane developsSeawater should be at least 27C in the upper 60 m ofthe oceanAir must be unstable warm and humidUpperlevel winds should be weak and preferably blowing in the same direction the developing storm is moving
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