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ERTH 2415 (21)
Chapter 13

Study Notes- CHAPTER 13.docx
Study Notes- CHAPTER 13.docx

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Carleton University
Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415
Claire Samson

CHAPTER 13 Floods 1 Gradient the slop of a stream channel bottom change in elevation divided by distance 2 Base Level the level below which a stream cannot erode usually sea level3 Equilibrium a state of balance in the system a condition in which opposing processes are so balanced that changes cause compensating action 4 Discharge the volume of water flowing in a stream per unit of time5 Load the amount of material moved and carried by a stream6 Sinuosity the length of a stream channel divided by the straightline distance between its ends 7 Meander the curves bends loops and turns in the course of an under loaded stream that shifts bank erosion from side to side in its channel8 Braided Stream an overloaded stream so full of sediment that water flow is forced to divide an d recombine in a braided pattern 9 Graded Stream an equilibrium stream with evenly sloping bottom adjusted to efficiently handle water flow discharge and sediment load transport10 Infiltration the slow passage of rainwater through the soil 11 Runoff the portion of precipitation that travels across land and ultimately reaches streams 12 Flood Plains the nearly flat lowlands that border a stream and act as the stream bed during floods 13 Avulsion an abrupt change in the course of a stream and adoption of a new channel14 Outburst Floods a sudden release of large quantities of water 15 Levees a natural or humanbuilt embankment along the sides of a stream channel 16 Hydrographs a plot of discharge with respect to timea special type of Icelandic eruptions from the geological past LECTURE SLIDES Flood BasaltsLargest volcanic events on Earthvery large volume of low viscosity lava with lowvolatile contentExtruded in a short time13 MA None occurred in recent geological time EX Columbia plateau Northwestern US Immense area covered and surface rupture fissuresMidcontinent rift Lake SuperiorGradient the slop of a stream channel bottom change in elevation divided by distance thStatistics show an increasing number of floods throughout the decades of the 20 Century P 378 Floods are identified as natural disasters The trend may be due to the increased development on floodprone lands following growth in the Canadian population better reporting or longterm changes in climate P 378is Canadas most floodprone river The river flowing Northward drains The Red River Floodwayparts of South Dakota North Dakota Minnesota and joins with the Assiniboine River in Winnipeg P 378 Why are floods so common along the Red River1 The river is geologically young it is only 9000 years old Therefore the river has not yet carved a deep valley 2 The valley is underlain by impermeable reddish clay The clay impedes the infiltration of water into the ground
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