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ERTH 2415 (21)
Chapter 6

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Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415
Claire Samson

Chapter 6 TsunamiIndian Ocean Tsunami December 26th 2004 Caused death and destruction in 13 countries with an estimated death toll of 245 000 but probably higher in reality Countries hit hard were Indonesia 198 000 dead Sri Lanka 30 000 India 11 000 and Thailand 6000 5 dead and 146 missing CanadiansIndianAustralian plate moves toward Indonesia Enormous collision causes frequent and huge subduction caused earthquakes in turn causing Tsunamis December 24th 1200 km long fault rupture began as a 100 km long portion of the northsouth oriented plate ruptured and slipped Moved north 3kms for 4 minutes then 25 kms for the next 6 minutesFault movement created the second largest earthquake in the world in past 100 yearsRupture started 30 km below sea floorcaused movements up to 20 m that shifted some Indonesian islands and tilted othersSea floor raised by 10 m Waves moved eastwest direction perpendicular to fault Earthquake caused buildings to collapse but evidence swept away by Tsunami that came minutes later Most powerful tsunami went west Indonesia and Thailand and west India SrilankaMarch 28th 2005 subduction zone broke again ruptured 400 km south from southern end of 2004 rupture Continuation of first earthquake Scissorlike tear in sub ducting plate delayed full rupture of 2004 But fault movements this time were strikeslip movements without the vertical displacement needed for tsunami to occur Region history suggests more earthquakes comingRelief funds worldwide reached 34 billion 1 billion from Australia 95 million from Canadian government and 65 million from Canadian NGOs Concern about the outbreak of diseases typhoid cholera etc Grand Banks Earthquake and Tsunami November 18th 1929Tsunami struck Newfoundland not too long ago Earthquake magnitude 72 offshore the Maritime Provinces Epicenter located south of grand banks Triggered submarine movement of sediment mass with estimated volume of 200 km cubedRuptured 12 telegraph cables Direct damage was few cracked chimneys and minor landslides max intensity of VI assigned First earthquake felt by Burin peninsula of NFL Tsunami began 25 hours later
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