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ERTH 2415 (21)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9 Summary.docx

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Carleton University
Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415
Claire Samson

Chapter 9 SummaryMass Movements and Snow AvalanchesGravity tugs incessantly at all landforms on Earth commonly causing failures called mass movementsSlopes approach failure due to external factors such as steepening of the slope adding mass upslope or removing mass low on a slopeInternal factors that make a slope weak include inherently weak materials such as clay minerals decreasing cohesion through solution or internal erosion weight of pore water and elevate porewater pressure and adverse geological structures such as inclined bleeding and fault surfacesMovement is usually initiated by a triggering event such as heavy rains an earthquake or human activities In Canada most mass movements occur in the spring and fall in conjunction with meteorological events They are prevalent in the Rockies because of the steep topographyMass movements range from the barely perceptible surface creep of hill slopes and gelifluction of periglacial soils to events involving material moving in excess of 325 kmh Major types of mass movement are downward as in falling or subsiding or downward and outward as in sliding and flowingFalls are rock masses dislodged f
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