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Chapter 4

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Carleton University
Earth Sciences
ERTH 2415
Claire Samson

Chapter four earthquake geologyseismology and engineering Page 8097 to end of locating the source of an earthquakesome earthquakes have the force equal to thousands of atomic bombs detonation at once Aristotle believed and the common belief for 2000 years were that earthquakes were winds rushing and releasing beneath the earths surfaceFaults are fractures on the earths surface where tension builds up and when it becomes too much the rock fractures and shifts The initial fault break occurs at the weakest point on the fault surface and then continues on the entire fault surface Mainshock the main and largest earthquake Forshock a smaller earthquake before the mainshock Aftershocka smaller earthquake after the mainshock Hypocenter the places where the fault first ruptures Epicenter the earths surface above the hypocenter In an excavated fault zone the floor beneath your feet is the foot wall and the rock hanging above your head is the hanging wall Refer to table 41 45 and 46San Andras fault 1200 km long fault line of the pacific ocean and north American plate In 1906the fault ruptured 430 km and shifted 6 m horizontally today it is locked meaning the stress is building up and it is just a m
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