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Chapter 13

PSCI 2602 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Development Theory, International Development, Global Environmental Politics


Department
Political Science
Course Code
PSCI 2602
Professor
Supanai Sookmark
Chapter
13

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Week 8 Chapter 13 The Political Economy of Development
Introduction
The global development agenda
o Is considered by many to have failed to provide a framework for development
poli that ould delier the goals of gloal deelopet 3
Ways of thinking about development
Development is a power term one denoting a state of affairs of which everyone, or
nearly everyone, can easily and in some cases passionately declare themselves to be in
favor. (358)
Modernization, structuralist, and underdevelopment theories
Key Dimensions of Modernization Theory
o Was developed in the United States in the context of the ideological rivalry of
the Cold War.
o Conceives of development as both an end-point (a condition of being developed,
which had already been achieved by the advanced industrialized countries) and a
proess of athig up to that oditio.
o Sees the path to deelopet eig oe of esterizatio – i.e. a process of
athig up  eulatig the deeloped outries – particularly in the nature
and sequence of economic change, and in processes of political development to
establish liberal democracy. (359)
Key Dimensions of Underdevelopment and Dependency Theory
o Was pioeered i Lati Aeria to eplai otiued uderdeelopet i that
region and elsewhere.
o Conceives of the orld eoo as diided ito a poerful center ad a eak
peripher, i hih the ters of trade ssteatiall disadataged the
periphery and perpetuated conditions of underdevelopment.
o Identifies development and uderdeelopet as the to faes of the historial
eolutio of apitalis ad eplores ho oditios of depedee of the
periphery on the center serve to reinforce underdevelopment and inequality.
(360)
Neo-liberalism and neo-statism
Key Dimensions of Neo-liberal Development Theory
o Rests on the argument that human well-being can best be advanced by liberating
individual entrepreneurial freedoms and skills within an institutional framework,
characterized by strong private property rights, free markets, and free trade.
o Sees the path to development as requiring the consolidation of market-based
mechanisms of organizing economies and allocating resources, and therefore the
depolitiizatio of eooi atiit.
o Identifies engagement in the global economy as the key to propelling processes
of development, while at the same time attributing development failures to
iteral fators suh as iorret goeret poliies, istitutioal
underdevelopment, corruption, or excessive state intervention in the economy.
(361)
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Key Dimensions of Neo-Statist Development Theory
o Was developed as a means of explaining the growth trajectory of Japan and
other East Asian Economies from the 1960s onwards, and the divergence
between this region and other parts of the developing world.
o Advances a different understanding from neo-liberalism of the relationship
between states and markets in East Asian development, emphasizing the role
ad iportae of deelopetal states i goerig arkets ad shapig
development processes.
o Along with neo-liberalism and other development theories, sees development as
a national process and prioritizes an understanding of development as economic
growth. (362)
Hua developet’, geder, ad eviroetal theories
Key Dimensions of Human Development Theories
o Take issue ith the other deelopet theories defiitio of deelopet as
groth, ad istead fous o a rage of idiators assoiated ith hua
deelopet ad sustaiale deelopet.
o Adae a people-etered approah to deelopet, here the objects of
development are human beings and groups of people, not simply countries or
economies.
o Broaden the focus to emphasize inequalities within societies and between
groups of people, not simply between countries, and incorporate not only
economic inequalities but a range of social inequalities. (364)
Development theory in practice
The mid 1940s to the early 1980s
Marked by the onset of the period of decolonization.
The experience of the great depression and the two world wars prompted a
reassessment of the virtue and dangers of the broadly laissez-faire economic policy.
Demographic trends necessitated urgent attention to employment as the key goal of
economic policy
The world economy was defined for all developing countries by heightened
protectionism in the key European and US markets.
Led to two important priorities for development strategies
o To design policies that would to a resumption of growth, achieve the goals of
industrialization, and in some cases respond to the demographic urgencies of
employment creation
o To find ways of mitigating enduring conditions of economic dependence of the
North ad esurig effetie partiipatio i the e iteratioal sste
which was shaping possibilities for achieving these goals.
o Catching up and breaking down. (365)
Import-substituting industrialization (ISI) three central goals;
o Stimulating and consolidating industrialization through a more effective system
of state intervention in the economy, restructuring economic activity away from
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