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Chapter 3

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PSYC 1001
John Weekes

Psychology Chapter 3: Genetics: - Chromosomes consist of DNA - DNA strands consist of complementary bases (Adenine binds with Thymine, Guanine binds with Cytosine) Homozygous: child’s parents have contributed similar genes for a trait (BB, bb) Heterozygous: child’s parent have contributed for different versions of genes (Bb) The Central Nervous system and the Peripheral N.S 1- CNS: is composed of the brain and the spinal cord 2- Peripheral N.S: is divided into the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system.  Somatic N.S: controls voluntary muscles and sensory receptors (carrying information from receptors in the skin, muscles and joints to the nervous system and that carry commands from the CNS to muscles) o Afferent nerve fibers: axons that carry information inward to the CNS from the periphery of the body.(from body to CNS) o Efferent nerve fibers: axons that carry information outward from the CNS to the periphery of the body. (from CNS to body)  Autonomic: controls involuntary muscles such as blood vessels and glands (things that people don’t normally think about such as digestion, heart rate etc. or difficult to control reactions) o Sympathetic: when the body is stressed (heart is beating fast, sweating) o Parasympathetic: When the body is calmed down 3- Neurons: basic cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate and transmit information. Structure of the Neuron 1- Dendrites: parts of the neuron that are specialized to receive information 2- Soma (cell body): contains the cell’s body and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells. 3- Axon: a long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands. 4- Myelin Sheath: insulating material that speeds up the transmission of the signals that move along axons. 5- Terminal buttons: end of the axons and are the ones that tranmist the neurotransmitters 6- Synapse: a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another. 7- Glia Cells: Provide various types of support for neurons Major Neurons: 1- Sensory neurons: bring information to the CNS 2- Interneurons: associate memory with sensory and motor activity in the CNS 3- Motor neurons: send signals from the spinal cord and the brain to muscles Resting an Acting Potential Resting potential: is its stable negative charge when the cell is inactive. (-70 MV) Action Potential: a very brief shift in a neuron’s electrical charge that travels along an axon. All – in none law: action potential is either fired or it isn’t Post-synaptic potential: is divided in two different categories which include excitatory (decreases negative charge (-55 MV) more positive) and inhibitory (increases negative charge - 70 MV more negative) P.S.P Neurotransmitters 1- Acetylcholine: only transmitter between motor neurons and voluntary muscles for example typing, walking, breathing, talking. ACH also appears to contribute to attention, arousal and memory. 2- Dopamine (DA): control of voluntary movement and pleasurable emotions. Overactivity of DA can result in schizophrenia 3- Norepinephrine (NE): contributes to modulation of mood and arousal 4- GABA: seem to produce only inhibitory postsynaptic potential. Valium and similar antianxiety drugs work at GABA synapses 5- Serotonin: involved in regulation of sleep and wakefulness, eating, aggression. Abnormal levels may contribute to depression and obsessive- compulsive disorder. Prozac and similar anti-depressant drugs affect serotonin circuits. 6- Endorphins: resemble opiate (soothing, creates inaction or dullness) in structure or effects. Contribute to pain relief and perhaps to some pleasurable emotions. The Brain Electroencephalograph: a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp. - EEG recordings are translated into brain waves which give a useful overview of the electrical activity in the brain. Lesion: destruction of the brain tissue Computerized tomography (CT): a computer-enhanced X-ray of brain structure. - Least expensive and has been widely used in research - Used to look for abnormalities in the brain - a series of x-
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