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Chapter 1-8

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Carleton University
PSYC 1001
John Logan

Chapter 1 The Evolution of PsychologyStructuralism Edward Titchener was based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related depends on introspectionIntrospection is the careful systematic selfobservation of ones own conscious experience Example concentrating on cold bubbly sweet soft drink Functionalism William James was based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure He stated that consciousness consists of a continuous flow of thought which he called stream of consciousness Natural Selection Charles Darwin is the heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive advantage they are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on the subsequent generations and thus come to be selected over timeBehaviorism John B Watson is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behaviour prior experience is essentialRadical Behaviourism Skinner represented a departure from earlier forms of neo behaviourismStimulus is any detectable input from the environmentReview of Kew PointsPsychologys intellectual parents were classic philosophy and 19th century philosophy and physiology disciplines that shared an interest in the mysteries of the mind Psychology became an independent discipline when Wilhelm Wundt established the first psychological research laboratory in 1879 at Leipzig Germany He defined psychology as the scientific study of consciousness The new discipline grew rapidly in North America in the late 19th century as illustrated by G Stanley Halls career Hall established Americas first research lab in psychology and founded the American Psychological Association The structuralists led by Edward Titchener believed that psychology should use introspection to analyze consciousness into its basic elements The functionalists inspired by the ideas of William James believed that psychology should focus on the purpose and adaptive functions of consciousness Functionalism paved the way for behaviourism and applied psychology Behaviourists led by John B Watson argued that psychology should study only observable behaviour Thus they campaigned to redefine psychology as the science of behaviour Emphasizing the importance of the environment over heredity the behaviourists began to explore stimulusresponse relationships often using laboratory animals as subjectsBullying research is applied psychologySubject bias is not a methodological flawThe Unconscious Freud contains thoughts memories and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exerting great influence on behaviourPsychoanalytic Theory Freud attempts to explain personality motivation and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behaviour does NOT focus on abnormal behaviorHumanism is a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth came from behaviourism and psychoanalytic theories they take an optimistic view in human natureReview of Kew PointsSigmund Freud was an Austrian physician who invented psychoanalysis His psychoanalytic theory emphasized the unconscious determinants of behaviour and the importance of sexuality Freuds ideas were controversial and they met with resistance in academic psychology However as more psychologists developed an interest in personality motivation and abnormal behaviour psychoanalytic concepts were incorporated into mainstream psychology The influence of behaviourism was boosted greatly by B F Skinners research Like Watson before him Skinner asserted that psychology should study only observable behaviour Working with laboratory rats and pigeons Skinner demonstrated that organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive consequences and not to repeat responses that lead to neutral or negative consequences Based on the belief that all behaviour is fully governed by external stimuli Skinner argued in Beyond Freedom and Dignity that free will is an illusion His ideas were controversial and often misunderstood Finding both behaviourism and psychoanalysis unsatisfactory advocates of a new theoretical orientation called humanism became influential in the 1950s Humanism led by Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers emphasized the unique qualities of human behaviour and humans freedom and potential for personal growth James Mark Baldwin established the first experimental laboratory in Canada at the University of Toronto in 1891 Rapid growth in Canadian psychology has been evident over the last centuryPhysiological branch studies being lethargic and gaining weight Cognitive perspective branch studies problem solving mind consciousness memory decisionmaking and languageApplied Psychology is the branch concerned with everyday practical problemsClinical Psychology is the branch concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disordersCognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring knowledgeEthnocentrism is the tendency to view ones own group as superior to others and as the standard for judging the worth of foreign waysEvolutionary Psychology examines behavioural processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generationsPositive psychology uses theory and research to better understand the positive adaptive creative and fulfilling aspects of human existence three areas of interest positive subjective experiences positive individual traits and positive institutions and communitiesReview of Kew PointsStimulated by the demands of World War II clinical psychology grew rapidly in the 1950s Thus psychology became a profession as well as a science This movement toward professionalization eventually spread to other areas in psychology During the 1950s and 1960s advances in the study of cognition led to renewed interest in mental processes as psychology returned to its roots Advocates of the cognitive perspective argue that human behaviour cannot be fully understood without considering how people think The 1950s and 1960s also saw advances in research on the physiological bases of behaviour Advocates of the biological perspective assert that human and animal behaviour can be explained in terms of the bodily structures and biochemical processes that allow organisms to behaveIn the 1980s Western psychologists who had previously been rather provincial developed a greater interest in how cultural factors influence behaviour This trend was sparked in large part by growing global interdependence and by increased cultural diversity in Western societies The 1990s witnessed the emergence of a new theoretical perspective called evolutionary psychology The central premises of this new school of thought are that patterns of behaviour are the product of evolutionary forces and that natural selection favours behaviours that enhance reproductive success Around the beginning of the 21st century the positive psychology movement became an influential force in psychologyPsychology is the science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes that underlie it and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to practical problemsPsychiatry is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disordersKey PointsContemporary psychology is a diversified science and profession that has grown rapidly in recent decades The main work settings for contemporary psychologists are1 private practice2 colleges and universities and3 hospitals and clinics Major areas of research in modern psychology include developmental psychology social psychology experimental psychology physiological psychology cognitive psychology personality and psychometrics attitude formation and change and how groups influence peoples behavior Applied psychology encompasses four professional specialties clinical psychology counseling psychology educational and school psychology and industrial and organizational psychology Although clinical psychology and psychiatry share some of the same interests they are different professions with different types of training Psychiatrists are physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders whereas clinical psychologists take a nonmedical approach to psychological problemsTheme 1 Psychology Is Empirical Empiricism is the premise that knowledge should be acquired through observationTheme 2 Psychology Is Theoretically Diverse A theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observationsTheme 3 Psychology Evolves in a Sociohistorical Context
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