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Chapter 6

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Carleton University
PSYC 1001
Chris Motz

Chapter 6 Notes: -study of learning important to the history of psych -learning refers to a relatively durable change in behaviour or knowledge due to experience -phobias are irrational fears of situations or particular objects -conditioning involves the creation of learning associations between events that occur in the environment of an organism Classical Conditioning -classical conditioning is a form of learning where a previously neutral stimulus is able to evoke a response that was originally evoked by a different stimulus -aka Pavlovian Conditioning -explains reflexive responding that is controlled by a stimuli that precede the response (consequences) -the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is a stimulus that stirs up an unconditioned response without previously being conditioned -the unconditioned response (UCR) is an unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning (natural response. Ex. Drooling over meat) -the conditioned stimulus (CS) is a previously neutral stimulus that has, because of conditioning, is able to evoke a conditioned response -the conditioned response (CR) is a reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of learned conditioning -the link between the bell and salivation in Pavlov’s experience is an example of a conditioned association -the unconditioned and conditioned response often consists of the same behaviour, though there are subtle differences. Example, salivation is a common response, but the reason behind salivation is conditioned -a trial in classic conditioning is any presentation of a stimulus or a pair of stimuli -classical conditioning often contributes to birth of phobias because of elicited emotional responses. It can also elicit nostalgia when hearing a song from childhood or a similar stimulus -immune system can be influenced by psychological factors -conditioning can reduce production of antibodies -conditioned responses can prove to be evolutionarily advantageous -acquisition is the initial stage of learning -learning is flexible -extinction is the gradual weakening and/or elimination of a conditioned response reaction -spontaneous recovery is when an apparently extinct reaction resurfaces after a period of non- exposure to the conditioned stimulus -renewal effect: if a response is extinguished in a different environment than it was created, it may resurface if the organism is returned to the original environment -extinction suppresses a conditioned response instead of erasing a learned association. -extinction does not lead to unlearning -stimulus generalization occurs when an organism responds to a new stimuli that is similar to the old stimuli with the same conditioned response -generalization gradients: the more similar new stimuli are to the original CS, the greater the generalization -stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism does not respond to a new, similar stimulus in the same way that it reacted to the original conditioned stimulus -the opposite of stimulus generalization -organisms can gradually learn to discriminate between the original CS and similar stimuli if they’ve had enough experience with both -higher order conditioning is where a conditioned stimulus is able to function as if it were an unconditioned stimulus -ex. Step 1: condition a dog to salivate in response to the sound of a tone paired with food. Step 2: pair the tone with a ne
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