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PSYC 1001 (161)
Chris Motz (18)
Chapter 1

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Carleton University
PSYC 1001
Chris Motz

Chapter 1 Intro: -psychologists seek to describe, explain, and predict behaviour -psych is a “way of thinking” -researchers must ask precise questions about issues through systematic observation to build knowledge that is dependable and right How Psych Developed: -psychology comes from two Greek words: -psyche: the soul -logos: the study of a subject th -in 16 century, psyche was the name of a topic of study about the soul, spirit, or mind as being separate from the body -early 18 century, used more among scholars to mean “the study of the mind” -psych has technically always existed -people have always between interested in the mysteries of the mind A New Science is Born: Contributions of Wundt and Hall: -Psych stems from philosophy and physiology -was not recognized as an important study unto itself -German prof. Wilhelm Wundt wanted to make psych an independent science and profession -created first journal and laboratory -1879=psych’s DOB -known as founder of psych -psych’s first direction was study of conscious experience -Wundt demanded the scientific method be used -G. Stanley Hall was a student of Wundt -contributed to rapid growth of psych in the US -created US’ first lab and journal -founded American Psychological Association (today’s biggest org. for advance of psych) Battle of the “Schools” Begins: Structuralism vs. Functionalism: Structuralism: -emerged under Edward Titchener -wanted to identify and examine fundamental components of conscious experiences like sensations, feelings, and images *Structuralism was based on the idea that psychology’s purpose is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and explore how these elements are related -depend on method of introspection -introspection is the careful, systematic self-observation of one’s own conscious experiences -requires training to make the subject more objective and aware -limitations: depend only on an individual’s reflections (biased) to document behaviour Functionalism: -Functionalism was based on the belief that psych should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structure -William James major pusher of this branch -landmark book: “Principles of Psychology”=most influential text in hist of psych -psych highly influences by different cultural and intellectual factors -impressed with Darwin’s Natural Selection -Natural Selection: inherent characteristics that provide advantages for survival that are likely to be selected to be passed down the gene line -applied this to humans led to idea that consciousness is an important HUMANISTIC characteristic -wanted to understand “stream of consciousness” -constant flow of thoughts -interested in how people adapt their behaviour to demands of the world around them -James McKeen Cattell and John Dewey investigated patterns in child development, effectiveness of educational methods, and behavioural differences between men and women -attracted woman to psychology -first woman=Margaret Floy Washburn with psych PhD -“The Animal Mind”=led to behaviourism -both functionalism and structuralism faded away, but functionalism left more of a lasting impression -behaviourism and applied psych descended from them Watson Alters Psych’s Course as Behaviourism Debuts: -behaviourism is a theoretical standpoint that scientific psych should only study observable behaviour -this was a major re-defining stage for psych: abandon consciousness altogether and focus on behaviours that can be observed directly -founded by John B. Watson -scientific method requires verifiability -mental processes (cognition) were private and therefore non-verifiable -claimed nurture over nature -reason for strong slant towards nurture (and environment) within behaviourism -behaviour: any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism -to behaviourists, the reason for psych is to relate obvious behaviours (“responses”) to observable events in the environment (“stimuli”) -result: behavioural approach often called stimulus-response psychology (S-R) -a stimulus is any detectable input from the environment -Ivan Pavlov showed dogs could be trained to salivate in response to an auditory stimulus like a tone from a bell -gave insight into how S-R bonds are formed -behaviourism contributed to the rise in animal research -researcher can exert more control over animals so they can control more variables Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture: -approach grew out of efforts to treat mental disorders -created procedure called psychoanalysis -psychoanalytic theory attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious reasons for behaviour -existence of the unconscious -the unconscious contains thoughts, memories, and desires hidden deep and within a person that greatly influence their behaviour -major departure from belief that people are fully aware of their actions -many of his psychoanalytic concepts filtered into modern day psych Skinner Questions Free will as Behaviourism Flourishes: -B.F. Skinner influenced by Watson’s methodological behaviourism and Pavlov’s work -developed own theory called radical behaviourism which differed from former behaviourist theories -internal events=hard to study (the unconscious) -organisms tend to repeat responses that lead to positive results, and tend to not if the results are negative or neutral -all behaviour is governed by external stimuli, not conscious decisions (free will) -free will is an illusion -Skinner became the face of psychology The Humanists Revolt: -behaviourism and psychoanalytic theory were thought to be “dehumanizing” by some psychologists -failed to recognized the unique qualities of human behaviour -humanism is a theory that highlights the distinctive qualities of humans, especially their freedom and potential for personal growth -optimistic view of human nature -humans=different from other animals -Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow=key figures -Rogers: human behaviour ruled primarily by each person’s sense of self, or “self concept” which animals presumably lack -both: human drive toward personal growth (basic need to continue to evolve and fulfill own potential) =essential for psychologists to understand behaviour -greatest contribution of humanists=ground-breaking treatments for psychological problems and abnormalities Psych Comes of Age as a Profession: -applied psych is the branch of psych concerned with everyday, practical problems -first part of applied psych to emerge was clinical psych -clinical psychology is the branch of psych concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of psychological problems and disorders -in early days, only focused on psych testing -many joined this branch during WWI and = surprised at how challenging and rewarding it was -APA now dominated by clinicians -today, applied psych covers school psychology, industrial and organizational psychology, and counselling psychology Psych Returns to Its Roots
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