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Chapter 02


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PSYC 1001
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PYSC 1001A Spring 2014Chapter 2The Research Enterprise in PsychologyWeiten W 2010 The Evolution of Psychology Psychology themesvariations 8th edBelmont Calif WadsworthCengage Learning21 Looking for Laws The Scientific Approach to Behaviorthe scientific approach assumes that events are governed by some lawful order1 Goals of the Scientific Enterprise1 measurement and description develop measurement techniques that make it possible to describe behavior clearly and precisely2 understanding and prediction scientists believe that they understand events when they can explain the reasons for the occurrence of the events to evaluate their understanding scientists make and test predictions called hypotheses 3 application and controlhopefully information gathered of practical value to solve everyday problemsunderstanding a phenomenon helps to exert more control over it defn A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variablesdefn Variables are any measurable conditions events characteristics or behaviors that are controlled or observed in a studydefn A theory is a system of interrelated ideas used to explain a set of observations more encompassing than a hypothesis2 Steps in a Scientific InvestigationStep 1 Formulate a Testable Hypothesis hypothesis must be formulated precisely and variables under study must be clearly definedStep 2 Select Research MethodDefine Study subject the hypothesis to a testStep 3 Collect the Data various methods Direct ObservationQuestionnaireInterviewPsychological Test Physiological Recording Examination of Archival RecordsStep 4 Analyze the DataConclusion does data collected support the hypothesis provide a conclusion on the findingsStep 5 Report the Findings publish findingsdefn An operational definition describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variabledefn Participants or subjects are the persons or animals whose behavior is systematically observed in a study defn data collection techniques are procedures for making empirical observations and measurements defn A journal is a periodical that publishes technical and scholarly material in a narrowly defiined area of inquiry3 Advantages of the Scientific Approach scientific approach offers two major advantages1 clarity and precision2relative intolerance of error through skeptism REVIEW of Key Learning Goals 21The scientific approach assumes that there are laws of behavior that can be discovered through empirical researchThe goals of the science of psychology include 19
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