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Chapter 14

PSYChapter 14.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1001
Professor
all

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Feb/19/2004, Thursday CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 14: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
I. Abnormal Behavior: Myths, Realities, and Controversies
A. The Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior
1. Medical Model – proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a
disease.
2. Szasz – Abnormal Behavior involves a deviation from social norms rather
than an illness. i.e. “problems of living” and not “medical problems”.
3. Diagnosis – distinguishing one illness from another
4. Etiology – apparent causation and developmental history of an illness.
5. Prognosis – forecast of probable course of an illness.
B. Criteria of Abnormal Behavior
1. Deviance – people are said to have a disorder if their behavior deviates from
what society considers acceptable (norms).
2. Maladaptive Behavior – people may be judged to have a disorder of their
everyday adaptive behavior is impaired i.e. substance abuse disorders.
3. Personal Distress – i.e. Depression/anxiety
4. Evolutionary Dysfunctions – a dysfunction occurs when an evolved
psychological mechanism does not perform its naturally selected function
adequately or effectively.
C. Stereotypes of Psychological Disorders
1. Psych Disorders are incurable
2. People with Psych disorders are often violent and dangerous.
3. People with psych. disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different
from normal people.
D. Psycho-Diagnosis: The Classification of Disorders
1. DSM scale used to diagnose disorders.
2. Axis I (Clinical Syndromes) and Axis II (Personality Disorders and Mental
Retardation) used to make diagnosis of condition.
3. Axis III (General Medical Conditions), Axis IV (Psychosocial &
Environmental Problems) & Axis V (GAF Scale) – used to record
supplemental info.
a. Axis V – current level of adaptive functioning.
E. Prevalence of Psych Disorders
1. Epidemiology – study of distribution of mental/physical disorders in a
population.
2. Prevalence – the percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a
specific time period.
a. Lifetime prevalence – the percentage of people who endure a specific
disorder at any time in their lives.
3. 1/3 of population suffers from a psych disorder. Most commonly: anxiety,
substance use, and mood disorders.
II. Anxiety Disorders
A. Introduction
1. Anxiety Disorder – class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive
apprehension and anxiety. 4 types – generalized anxiety disorder, phobic,
obsessive compulsive, and panic.
Feb/19/2004, Thursday CHANAPS
Notes From Reading
CHAPTER 14: PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
2. Disorders may not be mutually exclusive, many who have one develop
another later.
B. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
1. GAD – marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any
specific threat. i.e. “free floating anxiety”.
2. Worry about minor matters related to family, finances, work, personal illness.
3. Physical symptoms: trembling, muscle tension, diarrhea, dizziness, heart
palpations.
C. Phobic Disorder
1. Phobic. Disorder – marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object or
situation that presents no realistic danger.
a. Phobias may be common, but people with Phobic Disorders have fears
which seriously interfere with everyday behavior.
2. Common Phobias incl. acrophobia (heights), claustrophobia, brontophobia
(storms), hydrophobia, and various insect/animal phobias.
3. People usually realize fears are irrational but are unable to remain calm when
confronted by a phobic object (or even imaging it).
D. Panic Disorder and Agorophobia
1. Panic Disorder – characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety
that usually occurs suddenly and unexpectedly. Accompanied by physical
symptoms.
a. Victim becomes apprehensive, refusing to leave house.
2. Agorophobia – fear of going out to public places – complication of Panic
disorder.
a. Typically affects females.
E. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
1. OCD – marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts
(obsessing), and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
2. Obsessions often center on inflicting harm on others, personal failure, suicide,
sex acts.
3. Victims may feel as though they’ve lost control of their mind.
4. Typically arises in early adulthood.
F. Etiology of Anxiety Disorders
1. Biological Factors
a. Concordance Rate – indicates the percentage of twin pairs or other pairs
of relations that exhibit the same disorders.
b. Twin studies suggest low genetic disposition to anxiety disorders.
c. Anxiety Sensitivity may make people vulnerable to anxiety disorders.
i.e. Some people are highly sensitive to internal physiological symptoms
of anxiety and prone to overreact with fear when they experience
symptoms.
d. Link between anxiety disorders and neurochemical activity in the brain.
2. Conditioning and Learning
a. Many anxiety response may be acquired through classical conditioning
and maintained through operant conditioning.

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Description
Feb192004 Thursday CHANAPSNotes From ReadingCHAPTER 14 PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERSIAbnormal Behavior Myths Realities and ControversiesAThe Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior1Medical Modelproposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease 2SzaszAbnormal Behavior involves a deviation from social norms rather than an illness ie problems of living and not medical problems 3Diagnosisdistinguishing one illness from another 4Etiologyapparent causation and developmental history of an illness 5Prognosisforecast of probable course of an illness BCriteria of Abnormal Behavior 1Deviancepeople are said to have a disorder if their behavior deviates from what society considers acceptable norms 2Maladaptive Behaviorpeople may be judged to have a disorder of their everyday adaptive behavior is impaired ie substance abuse disorders 3Personal Distressie Depressionanxiety4Evolutionary Dysfunctionsa dysfunction occurs when an evolved psychological mechanism does not perform its naturally selected function adequately or effectively CStereotypes of Psychological Disorders 1Psych Disorders are incurable 2People with Psych disorders are often violent and dangerous 3People with psych disorders behave in bizarre ways and are very different from normal people DPsychoDiagnosis The Classification of Disorders1DSM scale used to diagnose disorders 2Axis I Clinical Syndromes and Axis II Personality Disorders and Mental Retardation used to make diagnosis of condition 3Axis III General Medical Conditions Axis IV PsychosocialEnvironmental ProblemsAxis V GAF Scaleused to record supplemental info aAxis Vcurrent level of adaptive functioning EPrevalence of Psych Disorders1Epidemiologystudy of distribution of mentalphysical disorders in a population 2Prevalencethe percentage of a population that exhibits a disorder during a specific time period aLifetime prevalencethe percentage of people who endure a specific disorder at any time in their lives 313 of population suffers from a psych disorder Most commonly anxiety substance use and mood disordersIIAnxiety DisordersAIntroduction1Anxiety Disorderclass of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety 4 typesgeneralized anxiety disorder phobic obsessive compulsive and panic
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