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Chapter 4

Chapter 4- Sensation and Perception.doc

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PSYC 1001

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Chapter 4 Sensation and PerceptionRedDefinitionBlueImportant PointsGreenImportant PeopleContributions1SensationThe Stimulation of Sense Organs2Perceptionthe Selection Organization and interpretation of Sensory Input3Psychophysics Basic ConceptsIssuesaPsychophysicsStudy of how physical stimuli are translated into Psychological ExperiencebGustav FechneriPsychophysics Psychologists in 1860s at University of LeipzigiiWilhelm Wundt based lots of research upon FechneriiiQuestion For any Given Sense what is the weakest detectable StimulusivAbsolute ThresholdMinimum Stimulus Intensity that an Organism can detectvAs Stimulus Intensity Increases the Subjects probability to responding to Stimuli Gradually increasesviThe Absolute Threshold is the Stimulus Intensity detected 50 of the timeviiJust Noticeable Difference JNDThe smallest difference in stimulus intensity that a specific sense can detectviiiWebers LawThe size of a Just Noticeable Difference is a constant proportion of the size of the initial Stimulus1Webers FractionThe Fractions that apply to different Sensory Inputs until a Difference is noted Increases constantly proportionatelycSignalDetection TheoryThe detection of stimuli involves Decision Processes along as Sensory Processes which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides Stimulus Intensity Background distractions that lower the chance of detection of a StimulusiNoise dSubliminal PerceptionThe registration of Sensory Input without conscious awarenessiSuch as Subliminal Messages in movies advertisements etcJohn KrosnickExperimented and found that Subliminal stimulation generally produces weak effectseSensory AdaptationThe Gradual Decline in Sensitivity to prolonged StimulationiEx You jump in Cold Water it is very cold at first But You Get Used to ItiiProcess that keeps people tuned into the changes rather than constants in Sensory Input4SightaThe Stimulus LightiPeople need Light to SeeiiLightForm of Electromagnetic Radiation that travels as a wave at the Speed of LightiiiAmplitudeAffects perception of brightness HeightivWavelengthAffects perception of Color Distance between PeaksbThe EyeiTwo Purposes Channel light to the Neural Tissue that receives it Retina And they House the RetinaiiLensTransparent eye Structure that focuses the light rays falling on the RetinaiiiNearsightednessCaused by Retina Close objects are seen clearly but distant objects appear blurryivFarsightednessDistant objects are seen clearly but close objects appear blurryvPupilThe opening into the center of the Iris that permits light to pass into the rear chamber of the eyeviIrisRegulates the amount of Light entering the Pupil by controlling the size of the PupilcThe Retina
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