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Chapter 7

Chapter 7- Memory .doc

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Carleton University
PSYC 1001

Chapter 7 MemoryRedDefinitionBlueImportant PointsGreenImportant PeopleContributions1MemoryaEncodingForming Memory CodebStorageMaintaining Encoded Information in Memory over TimecRetrievalRecovering Information from Memory StoresdForgetting is due to deficiencies in any of 3 Processes in Memory2Encoding Getting Information into MemoryaAttentionFocusing Awareness on a narrowed range of Stimuli or EventsiYou need to pay attention to Information if you intend to remember itiiFocusing your attention in 2 or more places at once causes large reduction in memory performance and motor performancebLevels of ProcessingShallow ProcessingiStructural EncodingEmphasizes the Physical Structure of the StimulusiiPhonemic EncodingIntermediate ProcessingEmphasizes what a word sounds likeiiiSemantic EncodingDeep ProcessingEmphasizes the meaning of Verbal InputivLevelsofProcessing TheoryProposes that deeper levels of processing result in LongerLasting Memory codes1Deeper Processing leads to Enhanced MemorycEnriching EncodingiElaborationLinking a Stimulus to other information at the time of EncodingiiImageryCreation of visual images to represent the words to be remembered1Easier to form Images of Concrete Objects instead of Abstract ObjectsiiiDualCoding TheoryMemory is Enhanced by Forming Semantic and Visual codes since either can lead to RecallivSelfReferent CodingDeciding how or whether Information is Personally Relevant3Storage Maintaining Information in MemoryaSensory MemoryPreserves Memory in its Original Sensory form for a Brief Time Usually only a Fraction of a SecondbShortTerm Memory STMA LimitedCapacity Store that can Maintain Unrehearsed Information for up to about 20 SecondscRehearsalThe Process of Repetitively Verbalizing or Thinking about the InformationiRehearsal Stores Information in your Short Term Memory for a Long TimedCapacity of StorageiGeorge MillerPeople could recall only about 7 Items in tasks that require ShortTerm MemoryiiChunkA Group of Familiar Stimuli Stored as a Single Unit1Storing Information in Similar Chunks helps for RecalleShortTerm Memory as Working MemoryiAlan BaddeleyModel of Working Memory of ShortTerm Memory1Phonological LoopFacilitate the Acquisition of Language2Visuospatial SketchpadPermits people to Temporarily Hold and Manipulate Visual ImagesControls Deploying Switching and Dividing 3Central Executive SystemAttention4Episodic BufferTemporary LimitedCapacity storage for Integrating Working Memory to LongTerm MemoryfLongTerm Memory LTMAn Unlimited Capacity Store that can hold Information over Lengthy Periods of TimeiLongTerm Memory is Stored Permanently sometimes there is trouble Retrieving it
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