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Chapter 6

Chapter 6- Learning.doc

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Carleton University
PSYC 1001

Chapter 6 LearningRedDefinitionBlueImportant PointsGreenImportant PeopleContributions1LearningAny relatively durable Change in Behavior or Knowledge that is due to Experience2ConditioningLearning Associations between events that occur in an Organisms Environment3Classical ConditioningaPhobiasIrrational Fears of specific Objects or SituationsbClassical ConditioningType of Learning in which a Stimulus acquires the Capacity to Evoke a Response that was originally evoked by another StimuluscIvan PavloviPavlovian ConditioningiiPavlovs DogsPrior to Dogs being Fed Meat a Clicking Noise Occurred1Dogs started Salivating After awhile when the Click Occurred prior to the Meat being given2Dogs salivated whenever Click happened even if there was no Meat3Salivating became a Conditioned AssociationdTerminologyProceduresiUnconditioned Stimulus UCSA Stimulus that evokes an Unconditional response without previous Conditioning iiUnconditioned Response UCRAn Unlearned Reaction to an Unconditioned Stimulus that occurs without previous Conditioning iiiConditioned Stimulus CSA Previously Neutral Stimulus that through Conditioning can Evoke a Conditioned Response ivConditioned Response CRA Learned Reaction to a Conditioned Stimulus that occurs because of Previous Conditioning vSometimes The UCR and the CR can be the same thingviConditioned ReflexConditioned Response is relatively Automatic or Involuntary1Happens GraduallyviiTrialAny Presentation of Stimulus or a pair of StimulieClassical Conditioning in Everyday LifeiConditioned Fears Such as Fear of BridgesiiEmotional Responses Such as a Smell reminding you of SomeoneiiiPhysiological Responses Such as Sexual Arousal Drug Tolerance etcfBasic ProcessesiAcquisitionInitial Stage of Learning Something1Stimulus ContiguityAcquisition depends on a Stimulus always being thereiiExtinctionThe Gradual Weakening and Disappearance of a Conditioned Response Tendency1As the CS is heard repeatedly without the UCS CS will ExtinguishiiiRapid Massed exposures to a FearInducing CS facilitates the Process of ExtinctionivSpontaneous RecoveryReappearance of an Extinguished Response after a period of No Exposure to the Conditioned Stimulus1New Response is usually weaker than beforevStimulus GeneralizationOccurs when an Organism that has learned a Response to a Specific Stimulus Responds in the same way to new Stimulus that are similar to the Original Stimulus 1Is Adaptive Given you rarely see the same Stimulus more than once2John B WatsonaLittle Albert ExperimentbThe More Similar new Stimuli are to the Original CS the Greater the Generalization
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