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PSYC 1001 Chapter Notes -Jean Piaget, Psychometrics, John Stuart Mill


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1001
Professor
Jennifer Pettalia

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Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology 09/16/2013
Pg. 3-13; 20-22
Disciplines of Psychology
Applied
oClinical, Counseling, School, Industrial
Research
oCognitive, Developmental, Social. Personality, Physiological, Experimental,
Psychometrics
oForensic, Evolutionary, Health, Positive
Psychology : the science that studies behaviour and the physiological and cognitive processes
that underlie it, and it is the profession that applies the accumulated knowledge of this science to
practical problems
2 Greek words: psyche- soul & logos – the study of the subject
“the study of the mind”
these words were put together in the 16th century but wasn’t commonly used until the 18th century
Philosophy : rational argument
Monism vs. Dualism
oMonism: One, mind controls
oDualism: people think in terms of having 2 sets – mind and body are separate
and fundamentally different. (Rene Descartes)
oRene Descartes, Thomas Hobbes, John Stuart Mill
Physiology : scientific study of living systems
E.g. measuring the speed of nerve impulses
William Wundt
Succeeded in opening the first formal laboratory for research in psychology in Leipzig, Germany
in 1879.
Debated if he was the father / characterized as the founder of psychology

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Structuralism - based on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into
its basic elements and investigate how these elements are related.
Ex - Introspection: careful, systemic, self-observation of one’s own conscious experience
Advocate: Edward Titchener
Functionalism - based on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose
of consciousness, rather than its structure.
Ex – Natural Selection: heritable characteristics that provide a survival or reproductive
advantage are more likely than alternative characteristics to be passed on to subsequent
generations and thus come to be “selected” over time.
Advocate: William James
Believed that psychology should investigate the functions rather than the structure of
consciousness.
More interested in how people adapt their behavior to the demands of the real world around
them.
Behaviourism – based on the premise that scientific psychology based in the premise that
scientific psychology should study only observable behavior.
why people behave the way they do
founded by John B. Watson
well known for the experiment “Little Albert Experiment”
trained Albert to fear everything that was white and fluffy
watched the behavior and present him with a stuffed animal, paired it with a very loud noise and
continued to do it over and over again.
Taught him to be fearful of fluffy things
Can change people’s behavior and reactions by observation, manipulate stimuli
Behaviour refers to any overt (observable) response or activity by an organism
Advocate: B.F. Skinner
Psychoanalytic Theory – attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorder by
focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior.
Unconscious – contains thoughts, memories, and desires that are well below the surface of
conscious awareness but that that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior.
Interested in how we express ourselves without knowing it
Ex: our dreams often seem to express important feelings they were unaware of.
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