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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - Memory.docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1001
Professor
Jennifer Pettalia
Chapter
7

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Chapter 7- Memory (pg.302 – 338)
(Encoding, Storage, and Retrieval)
ENCODING
Involves forming a memory code
Selecting information
Requires attention and processing
Doing something with the stimuli to put it into your memory store
Attention: involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. You
must choose to focus on only some of the stimuli…Selective attention is critical to
everyday functioning. — Deciding what you attending to
Factors affecting Attention
oInformation Filtration – screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select
few to pass through into conscious awareness.
oEarly selection – filtering info at the very beginning.
Ex: apple picking
oLate selection
Cocktail party phenomenon – focusing on one conversation but
noticing when someone mentions your name
oCognitive Load – When we are attending to complicated, high-load tasks that
consume much of our attentional capacity, selection tends to occur early.
However, when we are involved in simpler, low-load tasks, more attentional
capacity is left over.
oEx: Listening to music (Low); driving your car, listening to music, & other
distractions (High)
oEffortful processing – attending to information intentionally and meaningfully
Reading the definitions on the slide
oAutomatic processing – information that attended to without effort or conscious
awareness. –Unconscious, putting effort in.
The colour of the slides
Craik & Lockhart
oLevels of Processing Theory – proposes that deeper levels of processing result in
longer-lasting memory codes.
oStructural encoding – physical structure of the stimulus. Ex: how many letters
were there? Size, colour etc.
oPhonemic encoding – what a word sounds like; involves naming or saying the
words. Ex: which words rhyme with court?
oSemantic encoding – meaning of verbal input; involves thinking about the objects
and actions the words represent. Ex: which words are animals?
Processing Aids / Enriching Encoding
oElaboration – linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.
Ex: Elephant – big – trunk – grey
oVisual Imagery – the creating of visual images to represent the words to be
remembered.
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oDual-coding theory – holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and
visual codes, since either can lead to a recall.
oSelf-referent encoding – deciding how or whether information is personally
relevant. –If you have been involved in that info beforehand.
STORAGE
Involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time
Involves: sensory information, short-term/ working memory, long-term memory (Figure
7.5 – Atkinson and Schiffrin)
Sensory Memory – preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time,
usually only a fraction of a second. It can hold a large amount of information just long
enough for a small portion of it to be selected for longer storage.
oSperling (1960) experiment
Subjects saw 3 rows of letters flashed on a screen for just 1/20 of a second.
A tone following the exposure signaled which row of letters the subjects
would report to the experimenter. The subjects were fairly accurate when
the signal occurred immediately but the accuracy declined as the delay of
the tone increased to one second.
Memory traces in the visual sensory store decays in about ¼ of a second
Memory traces in the auditory sensory store last less than a second
Short-term memory – a limited capacity store that maintains unrehearsed information for
up to about 20 seconds
oUnless aided by rehearsal, its storage duration is brief
oRehearsal – the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the
information
Maintenance – maintaining the information in consciousness
Elaborative – increasing the probability that you will retain the
information in the future. Ex: focusing on the meaning of the words in the
list you are trying to remember
George Miller (1956): 7+/-2 limited capacity; people could recall only
about 7 items in tasks that required them to remember unfamiliar material.
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