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Chapter 11

PSYC 1002 Chapter 11: PSYC1002 Chapter 11

Course Code
PSYC 1002
Bruce Tsuji

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Textbook: Chapter 11
development: the age-related changes that occur from conception to death
zygote: a one-celled organism formed by a sperm and ovum
all other cells have developed from this cell
chromosomes genes
prenatal period: extends from conception to birth (the period of pregnancy)
development is rapid
This period is generally divided into three stages: the germinal stage, the
embryonic stage, and the fetal stage.
the prenatal phase is divided into three stages:
germinal stage: conception to 2 weeks
the zygote divides, travels down the fallopian tube, and attaches to the
uterine wall
placenta: a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus
from the mother’s bloodstream, and bodily wastes to pass out the mother
embryonic stage: 2 weeks to 2 months
vital organs and bodily systems being to form
very sensitive stage as numerous parts of the body are growing
fetal stage: 2 months to birth
bone and muscle formation, rapid body growth, sex organs begin to
develop, brain cells multiply, insulation is formed, and the respiratory and
digestive systems mature
age of viability: the age at which a baby can survive in the event of a
premature birth
a mother’s eating habits, drug use, and physical health can affect the fetus
teratogens: external agents that can harm an embryo or fetus
tobacco, alcohol, sedatives, narcotics, and cocaine are dangerous to the fetus
babies of heroin mothers are born addicted and have an increased risk of early
death due to problems associated with their addiction
fetal alcohol syndrome: a collection of congenital problems associated with
excessive alcohol use during pregnancy
can lead to microcephaly, heart defects, hyperactivity, and delayed mental
and motor development
also related to difficulties in school, depression, suicide, and criminal
smoking increases risk of miscarriage, stillbirth, and sudden infant death
also associated with slower cognitive development, attention deficits, and
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fetal immune systems are not developed enough to combat infections
the placenta screens out infectious agents, but not all
rubella, syphilis, cholera, smallpox, mumps, and the flu can be dangerous to the fetus
HIV can be transmitted to offspring via the placenta, delivery or breastfeeding
environmental toxins, such as pollution, can also be dangerous
too much or too little weight gain can be dangerous
a fetus needs essential nutrients
folic acids reduce the chance of birth defects
anxiety and depression may also cause complications in the fetus
prenatal malnutrition is linked to schizophrenia
low birth weight is linked to heart disease
breastfeeding is very important and is recommended for at least two years
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motor development: the progression of muscular coordination required for physical
reaching for and grasping objects, manipulating objects, and walking
cephalocaudal trend: the head-to-foot direction of motor development
infants gain control of their upper bodies before their lower bodies
proximodistal trend: the centre-outward direction of motor development
infants gain control of their torso before their extremities
maturation: the development that reflects the gradual unfolding of one’s genetic
genetically programmed physical changes that come with age, rather than
experience and learning
it is seen that infants are active in development, rather than passive
progress is now attributed to experimentation and learning and remembering
the consequences of actions
developmental norms: the median age at which individuals display various behaviors
and abilities
useful benchmarks, but should not be concrete as variations occur
rapid motor development has been observed in some cultures
the Kipsigis people of Kenya actively train infants to sit up, stand, and walk
soon after birth
the Aché of Paraguay do not allow infants to explore more than a metre from
their mother, delaying motor skills
temperament: characteristic mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity
longitudinal design: investigators observe one group of participants repeatedly over a
time sensitive
cross-sectional design: investigators compare groups of participants of differing age at a
single point in time
time-saving, easy, cheap
cohort effects: occur when differences between age groups are due to the groups
growing up in different time periods
three types of temperament:
easy children say hi and get comfortable around a stranger
slow-to-warm up children Seems to be more reluctant (unwilling and hesitant;
disinclined) when confronted by a stranger
difficult children never get quite comfortable with a stranger that enters into
their environment.
developed more emotional problems
Jerome Kagan et al
15-20% of children have an inhibited temperament (shyness, timidity, wariness)
risk factor for anxiety disorders
25-30% of children have an uninhibited temperament (less restrained)
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