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PSYC 2301 (23)
Chapter 1

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Carleton University
PSYC 2301
Elizabeth Nisbet

Chapter 1 Health Psychology: understanding how people stay healthy, why they become ill and how they respond to illness Health: a state of physical, mental and social well-being and not just the absence of disease -use the term ‘wellness’ to refer to optimum health Health psychologists study: a)health promotion/maintenance (how to develop good eating habits, promote exercise) b)prevention/treatment (how to manage stress) work with people who are already ill to help them cope with illness c) etiology: refers to causes/origin of illness (health psychologists interested in behavioral/social factors contributing to health/illness -> alcohol consumption, smoking, exercise etc. d)analyze/attempt to improve health care system and formulation of health policy Current view of the Mind-Body Relationship -physical health is interwoven with the psychological and social environment -all conditions of health/illness are influenced by psychological/social factors -Western countries emphasize the interrelation of all of the body’s systems, and view illness as disharmony between these systems -therefore, healing is accomplished through techniques and treatment that help restore physical and psychological balance (meditation, acupuncture, massage therapy) Biopsychosocial Model -assumption that health/illness are consequences of biological, psychological and social factors -mind and body together determine health and illness Advantages: -maintains that biological/psychological/social factors are all important determinants of health/illness therefore takes into account both macro-level (social support, depression) and micro-level (cell disorders, chemical imbalances). -> says that BOTH of these interact to produce health or illness -maintains that health/illness are caused by multiple factors and produce multiple effects systems theory approach: all level of organization are linked to each other and that change in any one level will effect change in all the other levels. -changes in micro-level can effect macro-level and vice versa Chapter 1 Biomedical Model: -assumes that psychological and social processes are largely independent of the disease process. -basis of somatic processes, such as biomedical imbalances or neurophysiological abnormalities. Downfalls: a) reductionist model: reduces illness to low-level processes, such as chemical imbalances rather than recognizing the role of more general social/psychological processes b) singl
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